Find out more about tuberculosis treatment

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How is the diagnosis of tuberculosis?
We have listed what you need to know about the treatment of tuberculosis.
The diagnosis of the disease is made by showing the tuberculosis germ in the sputum or in the organ that the disease holds. Since drug-resistant tuberculosis is an important problem and makes treatment difficult, it is also important to look at the drug susceptibility of tuberculosis microbe. Thus, the drugs that do not affect the microbe can be replaced by the effective ones or the treatment time can be changed accordingly.

What is the treatment of tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis treatment consists of maintenance therapy, which is traditionally administered in the first 2 months of intensified drug therapy and with fewer drugs to be continued for at least 4 months. It is necessary to take up to 10 times a day during the intensive medication period. It is important not to discontinue treatment, to take medication regularly, to avoid any resistance to the drug and to have full recovery. Tuberculosis treatment in Turkey is given free of charge by Tuberculosis Dispensaries. Again, these medications are drunk under supervision of patients. During the course of treatment, the sputum is checked again and the treatment is regulated according to whether or not the microbe is lost.
How is the benefit in treatment?
During the treatment of tuberculosis, the patient can be understood by the reduction in the cough, the weight gain, improvement in the chest X-ray and the inability to detect the microbe in sputum. Although the disease is healed after tuberculosis treatment, the lung film may not completely return to normal and the traces of the disease can be carried over life.

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease!
Since tuberculosis is an infectious disease, it is very important to screen the patient’s family and their immediate surroundings for the presence of active disease, and to initiate early treatment for the patients with the disease. At the same time, if there are young children, adolescents and people with low immunity who are at risk of getting sick in the immediate vicinity of the patient, they should be given protective medication from tuberculosis. There are also some tests showing contact with tuberculosis microbe. A skin test called PPD and blood contact with IGRA tests can be shown. Tuberculosis-protecting medication is only given to people who are in contact with this microbe and have a high risk of illness. This medicine is continued for at least 6 months to be taken once a day.

Protect your babies with the tuberculosis vaccine!
Another method of protection from tuberculosis is the vaccination of infants. Vaccination is a compulsory vaccination in our country conditions and it is performed at the left shoulder head in the second month of infants. If the vaccine is shelled and the shell falls off, it leaves a scar on the spot. The vaccine does not protect us from pulmonary tuberculosis. Although pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the most infectious types of tuberculosis, there are more types of tuberculosis that are more lethal. Vaccination is very valuable because it protects us against a very lethal brain tuberculosis, tuberculosis meningitis (inflammation of the brain membrane) and the widespread tuberculosis throughout the body.
Tuberculosis is a controllable and preventable disease.
Tuberculosis is an important public health problem in Turkey and early diagnosis, treatment and contact screening can be used to control the spread of the disease.
Click on the link to get detailed information about the Department of Chest Diseases at Koç University Hospital.

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Causes Cough in Children?

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What causes cough in children and how often?
Cough is one of the reasons that causes the most frequent application in childhood. Cough is actually a normal reflex and protects the airway from environmental harmful particles, secretions and aspiration.
 Is every cough a symptom of disease?
Healthy children may cough 11 times a day without other symptoms.
However, cough may be a symptom of some diseases according to the severity and frequency. Acute cough is usually caused by viral upper respiratory tract infections. In children, 50% of coughs due to upper respiratory tract infections decrease in 10 days and 90% in 25 days. Children may experience such infections 6-8 times a year, and these infections can be seen in a row especially in the nursery or school period.

What are the main diseases that cause coughing?
Pneumonia, pertussis and allergic airways diseases are some of the diseases that cause cough. Pneumonia (pneumonia) is an inflammation of the lung tissue. Bacteria can occur mainly due to various microorganisms. Cough with fever, rapid breathing, such as sputum may be complaints. Listening findings of the lung are guiding in the diagnosis.
Pertussis cough; It is a cough that occurs in seizures, which does not allow for breathing in succession, which requires breathing with a long sigh at the end of coughs, and sometimes ends with vomiting. With the swelling of the main airway, larynx, or vocal cords, a child may experience coughing similar to dog barking. This may be caused by swelling or edema, infection or allergy in the airway.
How effective are drugs used to treat cough in children?
The efficacy of cough medications for the pediatric age group has not been established. The use of these drugs is not recommended for children under two years of age, especially because of their toxic effects. The use of drugs containing codeine is not recommended for children under 12 years of age due to suppression of the respiratory system.
For more information about the Department of Pediatrics, Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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What is Chronic Cough in Children and What Causes?

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Cough that lasts more than four weeks in children is defined as chronic cough and causes a decrease in quality of life. Chronic cough should be considered carefully because it may be an evidence of an underlying chronic lung disease.
The age of onset of cough is important. Coughing that begins in the neonatal period usually indicates an underlying underlying cause and requires an in-depth examination. Genetic diseases such as tracheo-oesophageal fistula, tracheomalacia, or cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia can be manifested by chronic cough from the newborn period. Cough; wheezing or wheezing, especially at night, if the child is difficult to breathe when it is moving, the possibility of asthma should be evaluated. With a continuous cough, runny nose, watery eyes, a feeling of itching in the throat, and nasal discharge, these children may have hay fever or sinusitis.
What causes chronic cough besides respiratory diseases?
It should also be taken into consideration that children may have fled a child’s airway at all times. When a child is evaluated by a doctor due to chronic cough, it can be suspected that a foreign body has escaped the airway according to the findings of the examination and radiological findings. In children, symptoms such as recurrent vomiting with cough, a bad taste in the mouth, burning in the chest may indicate gastroesophageal reflux. It is dry, repetitive, persistent, bursting, and psychogenic cough may come to mind especially in the coughs that are lost during sleep at night or when the child is busy with something he likes. It is useful to evaluate the psychological status of the child after it is understood that there are no other cough diseases. Considering the protective nature of the airway, cough suppression is harmful in many respiratory diseases.
For more information about the Department of Pediatrics, Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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Does the Prevalence of Reflux in Children Increase?

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Does the frequency of reflux in children increase?
The reflux problem, which is thought to be an adult problem, can occur even in infants. Research shows that around 15 percent of all children have reflux. Yeditepe University Hospital Pediatric Health and Diseases, Child Gastroenterology Specialist Assoc. Dr. Meltem Uğraş points out that children with discomfort, nausea and especially weight loss should also be evaluated for reflux.
Reflux is the result of the loss of stomach contents to the esophagus due to the slackness in the valve between the esophagus and the stomach. Recently, the increase in signs of reflux in children of all age groups is important. This problem can reduce the quality of life of children and parents, as well as treatment of asthma, esophageal damage, recurrent otitis media and pneumonia can prepare for different diseases such as. Allergies and food allergies in particular can damage the esophagus and cause reflux symptoms. As the development process of infants continues, reflux is more common.
Reflux of children due to difficulty in gaining weight Yeditepe University Hospital Child Health and Diseases, Child Gastroenterologist Specialist Assoc. Dr. Meltem Uğraş states, however, that the development of children can also be affected. In addition, the acid escaping from the stomach to the esophagus, tissue damage and small wounds can lead to the risk of developing anemia.
Symptoms can be mixed
Complaints related to reflux can vary in infants and children. For example, nausea, vomiting and weight loss are observed in infants, but vomiting does not occur in children, but chest burning, hoarseness and slowing in development occur. In general, many of the symptoms are similar to different diseases, Assoc. Dr. Meltem Uğraş speaks: Ta Unless the underlying cause is found in the upper respiratory tract infections that develop with reflux, the child may be exposed to long and recurrent antibiotic treatments. In addition, complaints such as chest pain or compression can also be confused with heart-related diseases. Therefore, it is important to be vigilant about the symptoms of reflux and to consult a physician immediately. Dolayısıyla

Patient history is important in diagnosis
Asserting that the most important factor in the diagnosis of the disease is taking the child’s detailed history. Dr. Meltem Uğraş said, den We use various methods developed for the diagnosis of reflux and we do not approach each child with the same method. Some children only listen to complaints, while the clinical situation of some of them, depending on the severity of the complaint we use endoscopic or radiological methods.
Treatment begins with lifestyle change
In the treatment of reflux disease, first of all, some changes in life style need to be done. In dairy children, changing the contents of the food (intensification) is often one of the measures to be taken when feeding a small amount and raising the head while lying. In older children, orange juice, chocolate, mint-like foods that may cause reflux, and after the dinner need to reduce the intake of fluid. In addition, problems such as constipation, obesity, which leads to increased intraabdominal pressure, not to wear too tight clothes, to sit at the table while eating, eat frequently and a small amount of food, to eat 1.5-2 hours before bedtime and to raise the head while lying other measures that can be taken. Child Health and Diseases Specialist Assoc. Dr. Meltem Uğraş said, çık In accordance with the child, drugs can be used to regulate the movement of the digestive system and to decrease the stomach acid and to strengthen the valve functions. This treatment can last for about 4-6 months. However, surgery can be an option in very rare cases, which cannot improve despite long-term treatment. Ancak
Symptoms indicating reflex
Infants:
• Frequent nausea, vomiting • Rejection of feeding (bottle) • Grouching • Restlessness • Frequent crying spells • Recurrent cough • Recurrent otitis media • Slow development
Children:
• Burning in the chest • Pain in the mouth • Loss of dental brightness • hoarseness • Slowening in development • Common upper respiratory tract infection • Common ear diseases • Common pneumonia / pneumonia