What is autism? What are the symptoms of autism?

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What is Autism? Dr. Koç University Hospital, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, pointed out that autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social interaction, problems in verbal and nonverbal communication, repetitive behavior and limited interest. Tuba Mutluer said that the symptoms usually started within the first three years. Dr. Mutluer, which is defined as a fan disorder, draws attention to the fact that autism contains many clinical manifestations with different severity and symptoms.
What are the Symptoms of Autism?
The symptoms of autism mainly consist of issues that lead to functional disruption in two areas:
Social communication and interaction deterioration:

No eye contact, short-term establishment,
When I’m called by his name,
Improper use of gestures and gestures,
In your own case, in your own world,
Indifference to peers, failure to develop appropriate peer relations,
To be more concerned with objects and details than people’s faces,
Emotional unresponsiveness,
Difficulty playing games like imitations or pretensions
Not to share their feelings and interests spontaneously.

Limited and repetitive behavior patterns and interests:

Stereotypes (swinging, flapping your arms),
Extreme interest in rotating objects,
Non-objective playing with toys,
Repeater, unique, uniform speech,
Insistence in solicitation,
Restricted and unusual interests,
Rituals,
Hypersensitivity or insensitivity to some senses (such as sniffing, hearing, touching),

Click on the link to get detailed information about the Koç University Hospital Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department.

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Causes Autism? How is autism diagnosed?

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Causes Autism?
Recent studies show that autism has multiple genetic factors and gene-environment interactions. It is known that the disorder in the development of neural connections in the brain in the early period causes autism. Imaging studies identified functional reductions in areas related to volume reduction, facial and emotion reading in areas related to understanding social cues of the brain.
What are the other psychiatric conditions accompanying autism?
Children with autism have a high risk of co-morbidity for other psychiatric disorders. Particularly attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, tic disorder, depression and eating disorder are often seen as overlapping.
How is autism diagnosed?
The diagnosis of autism is made by the experts of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, based on clinical evaluation and behavioral characteristics. The severity of the detailed clinical history, signs and symptoms and the severity of functional impairment are very important in the diagnostic process in autism. Some internationally valid diagnostic scales are also helpful in diagnosing.
How old is the diagnosis of autism?
If there are children who have intermittent areas at the age of one, at least in terms of autism or other developmental disorders, ından risky children v should be specified and intervention should begin. In studies conducted by experienced experts 1-2 years of age is reported to be high reliability of the diagnosis.

Early diagnosis in autism is life-saving.

What is treatment in autism?
Treatment in autism is to direct the child to appropriate educational programs as soon as possible. Since the needs of children with autism are different from each other, the treatment and education given are specific to the child. Individualized Education Program (IEP) is planned and planned according to the individual characteristics and development level of the child. Education aims at acquiring children’s self-care and cognitive skills, particularly social and communicative skills appropriate for age. The method that comes to the fore in scientific studies from behavioral therapies; Applied Behavior Analysis. Education is effective only when it is continuous and intensive. Learning the methods used in education by family members and using them where necessary, positively affects the development of the child.
What is going on in autism, depends on what, can we speak of healing?
Although autism is often known to be a lifelong condition from childhood to adulthood, in recent years there has been an increase in autism. In recent studies, it has been shown that 5-20% of children with early diagnosis and early intervention can be diagnosed.
Early age of first diagnosis, early initiation of appropriate educational intervention, intelligence level of the child, good language development and mild symptom severity have been shown to be the predictors of a favorable course in autism.

Discover Autism Early!

If you are a child;

If he doesn’t make eye contact or his eyes stick to something,
If he doesn’t look at you when you say his name and he pretends he doesn’t hear it,
His speech is behind his peers,
If he says some words over and over again,
With his finger, he doesn’t show what he wants and he uses your hand,
If it does not initiate or maintain a mutual relationship or game,
If his or her peers are not interested in games or toys,
If he doesn’t play imaginary games and always repeats the same game,
If there are different and repetitive movements such as wobbling, jumping, walking at fingertips, clapping arms,
If he is overactive, doesn’t make eye contact,
If you’re doing some unusual gestures, such as rotating and rotating some items,
If the physical contact overreacts or does not respond to sensory stimuli such as sound or light,
If he overreacts to the changes in order in his daily life,

It is important to bring a child and adolescent psychiatry specialist for autism. Early diagnosis in autism changes the quality of life positively.
Click on the link to get detailed information about the Koç University Hospital Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department.

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Fear of School: Alas, my child does not want to go to school!

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In the early period of schooling, especially in the first year of the child’s meeting with the school, fear of school is frequently encountered. In primary school first grade students, fear of school is short term (not exceeding one month), decreasing in quality and in a level which does not cause serious problems. The family must take the child to school in a determined manner and this familiarization period must be carried out in cooperation with the school guidance service and teacher.
Fear of school may require psychiatric support in some cases.
At which stage should parents apply for psychiatric support?
If your child has a fear of a school that lasts more than a month and does not decrease over time, you may need support from experts. These school-feared children may complain of physical ailments such as headache, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting when school time comes. Therefore, there may be multiple doctor applications. These symptoms may be accompanied by anger outbursts, intolerance, fear of separation, or family behavior.
Most of the time, children do not want to leave their parents who come to school, they like to go out and go home during classes. Complaints of the child sent home usually disappear at home, and complaints appear again the next morning. Sometimes children may refuse to leave the house.

Why do children fear a school?
Moving, change in family dynamics and such stressful events may have triggered school fear. The underlying causes may be something that happens to parents when they are in school, fearing another student, bullying, or fear of failure. Transition periods (starting school for the first time, changing schools, starting with secondary school or high school, etc.) can trigger school fear.
In cases where the fear of school is not resolved and concerns are kept away from school for a long time, serious educational or social problems may arise in the child. Treatment of fear requires the cooperation of health personnel, school staff, guidance teacher and the whole family.
What can the family do to overcome school fear?

1. Seek help from child mental health workers (child psychiatrist, specialist child psychologist, etc.).
The most important step to overcome the fear of school is to understand the cause of fear. The reasons underlying the reluctance of your child to school are tried to be understood by using various techniques and the most appropriate treatment method is provided to the child. It may also be comfortable for your child to know that it is always a safe place to go and talk.
2. Talk to your child.
Your child needs to share his feelings and concerns with you. Don’t show that you don’t take the child’s fear seriously by saying in over time “. Talk about her fears and show that you understand her and you’re willing to help.
3. Talk to school staff.
Teach teachers, guidance counselors, infirmaries and the school head. Together we collaborate in a solution-oriented manner.
4. Get your child to school gradually (eg by increasing school hours each week).

5. Highlight the beautiful aspects of the school.
Emphasize that your child can play with friends at school, make new friends, have fun at recess and learn new things at school.
6. Remove all fun activities at home during school hours.
If your child refuses to go to school, avoid access to all televisions, tablets and toys in the house. When the child is at home, he / she should not have a more enjoyable time at school.
7. Tell your child that he / she can reach you at certain times (during breaks, lunch breaks).

8. Knowing that your child can reach you or another adult during school hours makes him feel safe and secure.
9. Tell your child that his family will be safe when he / she is at school.
Patiently repeat that there will be nothing happening to you when you go to school, hugging your child, saying nice and positive words.
10. Guide your child to hobby and interests.
Entertainment means relaxation. With hobbies, your child may be headed for other things and help them think less of school-related concerns. Hobbies also increase self-confidence.
This article Prepared by Tuba Mutluer.
For more information, please contact our Child and Adolescent Mental Health (Psychiatry) department.

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7 reasons to have a communication problem with your child

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Pay attention to the parents who live in the child communication problem!
We have mentioned the points you should pay attention to when spending time with your child in our previous article.
Do we want to start by making a mistake on parenting?
No.
Most of the time, parents trust their parenting instincts and do not try to get help with problems with their children. Unfortunately, as a parent, we may often not be able to correctly understand how to behave in situations we face, and sometimes make mistakes in communicating with our children.
In the following, we can overcome the most common 7 common mistakes in parenting and provide more effective family communication.
Not trying to solve problems

Thinking that some problems cannot be solved or accepting them easily can cause parents to be disappointed with these problems for years. These can often occur as wake-up nights, sleep-time discussions, tantrums, and behavior disorders in older children.
For some problems you may encounter as parents, you can get help, work on these problems and change them. Your child may not be born with a manual, but it may be helpful to consult a specialist for ongoing and difficult-to-solve problems.
Grow or underestimate problems

Before attempting to solve the problems, the problem should be determined very well and what is the problem and how big the problem is. If it is a big problem, the following questions should be asked:

Does your child suffer from anger at times?

If your child is a teenager, is he testing his limits?

Does he spend a lot of time away from his family or is he trying to be more independent?

To have unrealistic expectations

If you have unrealistic expectations about what your child should do, it can actually lead to various problems.
These are examples of waiting for your 2.5-year-old child to complete toilet training. Remember that your expectations may not match what your child may develop or do. In such cases, what age your child can do, what kind of psychological changes can be consulted a specialist should be consulted and expectations should be adjusted, should not be treated hastily.
Not being consistent
As a parent, approaching your child with inconsistent behavior may cause you to experience many problems with your child. Sometimes it seems very strict not to care what your child is doing, but at other times, it may cause your child not to distinguish what is right and what is expected, and not to understand what is expected of him / her or how to behave.
No rules and no limits

You can think that your child is doing your child good by doing whatever you want. However, most children may experience problems with living without borders.
Having rules, setting limits, consistent routines and offering limited options to your child allow your child to learn what to expect and what to expect throughout the day.
Pass against the counter
Passing against an attack is not only about physically fighting with your child, but observing them in many ways, such as getting angry with them, shouting, repeating yourself over and over again.
Fighting or discussing with your child may give them the message that they have the power to trigger these harsh reactions. Responding with such behaviors instead of trying to terminate the problems means that you reward the wrong behavior that you are trying to terminate without realizing it.
It would be a better option to end these power discussions and learn more effective disciplinary methods rather than counter-attack.

Not changing the methods that don’t work
Failure to identify or change methods that you do not use in parenting can create problems at the first stage in solving problems.
For example, the method you use to adjust your sleep routine does not work, and if your child is tired all day long when you wake up the next day, this is an indication that you need a new method of sending your child to sleep.
If you are having problems with family communication on these 7 issues and similar issues, it is useful to consult a child and adolescent psychiatrist.
For more information please contact our Child and Adolescent Mental Health (Psychiatry) department.

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My child has a tiki, what should I do?

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What is Tik? Why?
Tics are involuntary movements occurring in certain muscle groups, occurring suddenly, repetitive, stereotyped and non-rhythmic, as motor movement or noise extraction. Teak usually begins in boys and at an early age and occurs for spiritual reasons. Ticks are usually not seen before 3-4 years of age. The most common is 6-7 years of age and the first adolescence (11-13 years) period. Tics are not considered to be just learned behaviors as they were before.
Tics are caused by neurobiological structural defects, but they can worsen and heal as a result of environmental stimuli. In other words, environmental impacts by the behavioral techniques or the effects of the individual on the environment can be modified. Since each individual’s interaction with his environment and environment is different, it is necessary to understand in detail the interaction of the individual with the environment. This understanding will strengthen the hand of both the individual and the doctor in dealing with tics.

How should families treat their children with tics?
– The families of children should be careful about the following issues.
Both medical (drug) and behavioral therapy methods should be followed closely. The support of the family is important for your child to use their medicines regularly and to continue their regular therapy at home regularly.
– Factors that increase and decrease the levels should be determined by family observation and support. These situations should be talked about, the cases considered to increase tics should be reduced as much as possible;
-The parents must learn exactly what the parents are and help the child to learn. The more knowledgeable the child is, the easier it can handle their tics. In this case, it is also useful to exercise the competing response determined with the therapist.
Conflicts and tensions in the home should be reduced as much as possible and the child should feel safe.
-Those attitudes should be avoided, since all the individuals in the family can emphasize this behavior and often feel that they are annoyed by increasing the anxiety due to tike.
– As the teak response increases in the face of stress and tension, there should not be a strong reaction to the issue.
-The child should be made to feel loved and a positive self-perception and self-confidence should be developed.
-Prompting the child constantly by parents and leaving him to do is put him under emotional and physical strain, which may lead to tics or new tics. Be careful about this.
It should be noted that even if the child stops tics for a while, these tics are not under his control. Parents’ approach should be in this direction.
– Threats threaten the child’s self-confidence and impair social cohesion. Children with tics often find it difficult to socialize and make friends. The child can be helped to create a play environment with his friends for socialization and to develop positive social relations with the support of other adults he is associated with.
– Apart from these, multi-faceted approach to tick intervention is required. Family counseling, child psychotherapy, and drug therapy can also be applied along with behavioral therapy.
This article Prepared by Tuba Mutluer.
For more information please contact our Child and Adolescent Mental Health (Psychiatry) department.

Does the Prevalence of Reflux in Children Increase?

Attention if you have weight loss and unrest!
Does the frequency of reflux in children increase?
The reflux problem, which is thought to be an adult problem, can occur even in infants. Research shows that around 15 percent of all children have reflux. Yeditepe University Hospital Pediatric Health and Diseases, Child Gastroenterology Specialist Assoc. Dr. Meltem Uğraş points out that children with discomfort, nausea and especially weight loss should also be evaluated for reflux.
Reflux is the result of the loss of stomach contents to the esophagus due to the slackness in the valve between the esophagus and the stomach. Recently, the increase in signs of reflux in children of all age groups is important. This problem can reduce the quality of life of children and parents, as well as treatment of asthma, esophageal damage, recurrent otitis media and pneumonia can prepare for different diseases such as. Allergies and food allergies in particular can damage the esophagus and cause reflux symptoms. As the development process of infants continues, reflux is more common.
Reflux of children due to difficulty in gaining weight Yeditepe University Hospital Child Health and Diseases, Child Gastroenterologist Specialist Assoc. Dr. Meltem Uğraş states, however, that the development of children can also be affected. In addition, the acid escaping from the stomach to the esophagus, tissue damage and small wounds can lead to the risk of developing anemia.
Symptoms can be mixed
Complaints related to reflux can vary in infants and children. For example, nausea, vomiting and weight loss are observed in infants, but vomiting does not occur in children, but chest burning, hoarseness and slowing in development occur. In general, many of the symptoms are similar to different diseases, Assoc. Dr. Meltem Uğraş speaks: Ta Unless the underlying cause is found in the upper respiratory tract infections that develop with reflux, the child may be exposed to long and recurrent antibiotic treatments. In addition, complaints such as chest pain or compression can also be confused with heart-related diseases. Therefore, it is important to be vigilant about the symptoms of reflux and to consult a physician immediately. Dolayısıyla

Patient history is important in diagnosis
Asserting that the most important factor in the diagnosis of the disease is taking the child’s detailed history. Dr. Meltem Uğraş said, den We use various methods developed for the diagnosis of reflux and we do not approach each child with the same method. Some children only listen to complaints, while the clinical situation of some of them, depending on the severity of the complaint we use endoscopic or radiological methods.
Treatment begins with lifestyle change
In the treatment of reflux disease, first of all, some changes in life style need to be done. In dairy children, changing the contents of the food (intensification) is often one of the measures to be taken when feeding a small amount and raising the head while lying. In older children, orange juice, chocolate, mint-like foods that may cause reflux, and after the dinner need to reduce the intake of fluid. In addition, problems such as constipation, obesity, which leads to increased intraabdominal pressure, not to wear too tight clothes, to sit at the table while eating, eat frequently and a small amount of food, to eat 1.5-2 hours before bedtime and to raise the head while lying other measures that can be taken. Child Health and Diseases Specialist Assoc. Dr. Meltem Uğraş said, çık In accordance with the child, drugs can be used to regulate the movement of the digestive system and to decrease the stomach acid and to strengthen the valve functions. This treatment can last for about 4-6 months. However, surgery can be an option in very rare cases, which cannot improve despite long-term treatment. Ancak
Symptoms indicating reflex
Infants:
• Frequent nausea, vomiting • Rejection of feeding (bottle) • Grouching • Restlessness • Frequent crying spells • Recurrent cough • Recurrent otitis media • Slow development
Children:
• Burning in the chest • Pain in the mouth • Loss of dental brightness • hoarseness • Slowening in development • Common upper respiratory tract infection • Common ear diseases • Common pneumonia / pneumonia