Does breast milk make jaundice?

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Does breast milk make jaundice? however, there are two reasons for the jaundice seen in breast-fed infants. From the Department of Child Health and Diseases (Neonatology) Dr. Tuğba Gürsoy explains these reasons for you:

The mother’s inadequate milk production or the baby’s not absorbing the baby as a result of the baby is not enough breast milk is seen due to. These babies lose excess weight and blood bilirubin levels rise. In this case, to increase the amount of milk, you should feed your baby as often as you like and ensure that your baby’s breast is fully understood during feeding.
Breast milk jaundice may be seen in newborn babies due to inadequate liver and intestines. It is usually seen after the first week of life, reaching its highest levels in the second week and then disappearing in weeks. Blood bilirubin levels rarely occur to require treatment.

Breastfeeding should be discontinued if breast milk is jaundiced in infants?
You should not stop breastfeeding your baby even if your baby has had jaundice; on the contrary, you should continue to breastfeed at frequent intervals. Make sure your baby is well fed and weight gain. You can get support for breastfeeding your baby. You can request breastfeeding counseling from the health personnel of your hospital.

How is Jaundice treated?
The most common treatment modality for jaundice is light therapy (phototherapy). The blue light that breaks down the bilirubin and releases it from the body is applied to the baby’s skin. Babies are naked under the light only with a cloth. The baby’s eyes are closed with specially produced tapes so that they are not damaged. Phototherapy is successful in most babies and no other treatment is required. Phototherapy is stopped when the baby’s level of bilirubin in the blood drops to safe levels. Phototherapy is a safe treatment method, with little side effects. May cause diarrhea or skin rash.

Blood exchange is applied in emergencies such as blood group incompatibility, where the level of bilirubin increases to dangerous levels and should therefore be rapidly discarded. The bilirubin-rich blood of the baby is taken, instead of the blood from the blood bank is given.

What can be done to prevent the development of severe jaundice in infants?
Various measures can be taken to prevent the development of serious jaundice in infants:

The amount of bilirubin is measured before the postpartum baby is discharged from the hospital and the control is adjusted according to this result.
Family members are given training on how to follow the baby’s jaundice at home and signals of danger. Considering the increased jaundice, the hospital is immediately referred to.
In the babies who need treatment, treatment is started as soon as possible.

Click on the link to get detailed information about the Department of Pediatrics at Koç University Hospital.

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Find out more about tuberculosis treatment

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How is the diagnosis of tuberculosis?
We have listed what you need to know about the treatment of tuberculosis.
The diagnosis of the disease is made by showing the tuberculosis germ in the sputum or in the organ that the disease holds. Since drug-resistant tuberculosis is an important problem and makes treatment difficult, it is also important to look at the drug susceptibility of tuberculosis microbe. Thus, the drugs that do not affect the microbe can be replaced by the effective ones or the treatment time can be changed accordingly.

What is the treatment of tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis treatment consists of maintenance therapy, which is traditionally administered in the first 2 months of intensified drug therapy and with fewer drugs to be continued for at least 4 months. It is necessary to take up to 10 times a day during the intensive medication period. It is important not to discontinue treatment, to take medication regularly, to avoid any resistance to the drug and to have full recovery. Tuberculosis treatment in Turkey is given free of charge by Tuberculosis Dispensaries. Again, these medications are drunk under supervision of patients. During the course of treatment, the sputum is checked again and the treatment is regulated according to whether or not the microbe is lost.
How is the benefit in treatment?
During the treatment of tuberculosis, the patient can be understood by the reduction in the cough, the weight gain, improvement in the chest X-ray and the inability to detect the microbe in sputum. Although the disease is healed after tuberculosis treatment, the lung film may not completely return to normal and the traces of the disease can be carried over life.

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease!
Since tuberculosis is an infectious disease, it is very important to screen the patient’s family and their immediate surroundings for the presence of active disease, and to initiate early treatment for the patients with the disease. At the same time, if there are young children, adolescents and people with low immunity who are at risk of getting sick in the immediate vicinity of the patient, they should be given protective medication from tuberculosis. There are also some tests showing contact with tuberculosis microbe. A skin test called PPD and blood contact with IGRA tests can be shown. Tuberculosis-protecting medication is only given to people who are in contact with this microbe and have a high risk of illness. This medicine is continued for at least 6 months to be taken once a day.

Protect your babies with the tuberculosis vaccine!
Another method of protection from tuberculosis is the vaccination of infants. Vaccination is a compulsory vaccination in our country conditions and it is performed at the left shoulder head in the second month of infants. If the vaccine is shelled and the shell falls off, it leaves a scar on the spot. The vaccine does not protect us from pulmonary tuberculosis. Although pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the most infectious types of tuberculosis, there are more types of tuberculosis that are more lethal. Vaccination is very valuable because it protects us against a very lethal brain tuberculosis, tuberculosis meningitis (inflammation of the brain membrane) and the widespread tuberculosis throughout the body.
Tuberculosis is a controllable and preventable disease.
Tuberculosis is an important public health problem in Turkey and early diagnosis, treatment and contact screening can be used to control the spread of the disease.
Click on the link to get detailed information about the Department of Chest Diseases at Koç University Hospital.

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What causes the growth of the nasal flesh in children?

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Growth of Genetic Meat in Children
Fungal growth is one of the most common diseases in children. Geniz is the name given to the space behind the nose that combines the mouth with the nose. Adenoid tissue in the flesh or medical language is a lymphoepithelial tissue in this region. Aphimous meat with tonsils, nose and mouth through the body as a part of the immune system to fight against infections. The growth of pubescent meat usually occurs between 3-7 years of age, when children are most frequently confronted with infection. As the age progresses, the growth decreases and the nasal passages in adulthood are almost lost. From our Ear Nose Throat Department. Ozan Gokler informs about Geniz Meat:
What are the symptoms of flesh growth?
Nasal congestion, difficulty in breathing through the nose, accordingly mouth breathing, open mouth, snoring, frequent upper respiratory tract and middle ear infections.
How is a flesh diagnosis made?
The history of the patients and the families are almost sufficient for the diagnosis. In the Otorhinolaryngology examination, the nasal lobe can be seen endoscopically with special instruments by mouth and nose. X-rays can also help diagnose if necessary.
How is the process of treating the flesh meat?
Treatment of the growth of pheromone is surgery. Surgery can be performed at any age when the indication is correct. The operation is very easy for both the surgeon and the child, it is performed under general anesthesia and the duration is about 5-10 minutes. Different methods can be used as surgical technique. No matter what method is used, the complications related to surgery are very low. The operated child is discharged on the same day. Children may continue their normal life the day after surgery. Surgery should be avoided in children with cleft palate or blood clotting problem.

Be careful!
Nephrine growth, which is not properly treated or not treated timely, may lead to greater and permanent problems. Enlarged nasal flesh may adversely affect middle ear ventilation due to its anatomical position. As a result of the inadequate ventilation of the middle ear, fluid collection in the middle ear can cause hearing loss and chronic otitis media. Sleep quality is reduced due to nasal congestion and snoring. Decreased sleep quality may lead to distraction and, consequently, a decrease in course achievement.
Untreated chronic nasal flesh growth, obstructive sleep apnea in children, upper airway resistance syndrome, swallowing and speech disorder, decrease in taste and odor, abnormal facial and tooth development, growth and growth retardation, sinusitis, pharyngitis and lung infections may cause.
It is very important for the healthy development of children that it is very easy to diagnose and treat this childhood disease, which is very common and easy to diagnose and treat.
Click on the link to get detailed information about Koç University Hospital’s Otolaryngology Department.

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What is autism? What are the symptoms of autism?

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What is Autism? Dr. Koç University Hospital, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, pointed out that autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social interaction, problems in verbal and nonverbal communication, repetitive behavior and limited interest. Tuba Mutluer said that the symptoms usually started within the first three years. Dr. Mutluer, which is defined as a fan disorder, draws attention to the fact that autism contains many clinical manifestations with different severity and symptoms.
What are the Symptoms of Autism?
The symptoms of autism mainly consist of issues that lead to functional disruption in two areas:
Social communication and interaction deterioration:

No eye contact, short-term establishment,
When I’m called by his name,
Improper use of gestures and gestures,
In your own case, in your own world,
Indifference to peers, failure to develop appropriate peer relations,
To be more concerned with objects and details than people’s faces,
Emotional unresponsiveness,
Difficulty playing games like imitations or pretensions
Not to share their feelings and interests spontaneously.

Limited and repetitive behavior patterns and interests:

Stereotypes (swinging, flapping your arms),
Extreme interest in rotating objects,
Non-objective playing with toys,
Repeater, unique, uniform speech,
Insistence in solicitation,
Restricted and unusual interests,
Hypersensitivity or insensitivity to some senses (such as sniffing, hearing, touching),

Click on the link to get detailed information about the Koç University Hospital Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department.

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Causes Autism? How is autism diagnosed?

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Causes Autism?
Recent studies show that autism has multiple genetic factors and gene-environment interactions. It is known that the disorder in the development of neural connections in the brain in the early period causes autism. Imaging studies identified functional reductions in areas related to volume reduction, facial and emotion reading in areas related to understanding social cues of the brain.
What are the other psychiatric conditions accompanying autism?
Children with autism have a high risk of co-morbidity for other psychiatric disorders. Particularly attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, tic disorder, depression and eating disorder are often seen as overlapping.
How is autism diagnosed?
The diagnosis of autism is made by the experts of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, based on clinical evaluation and behavioral characteristics. The severity of the detailed clinical history, signs and symptoms and the severity of functional impairment are very important in the diagnostic process in autism. Some internationally valid diagnostic scales are also helpful in diagnosing.
How old is the diagnosis of autism?
If there are children who have intermittent areas at the age of one, at least in terms of autism or other developmental disorders, ından risky children v should be specified and intervention should begin. In studies conducted by experienced experts 1-2 years of age is reported to be high reliability of the diagnosis.

Early diagnosis in autism is life-saving.

What is treatment in autism?
Treatment in autism is to direct the child to appropriate educational programs as soon as possible. Since the needs of children with autism are different from each other, the treatment and education given are specific to the child. Individualized Education Program (IEP) is planned and planned according to the individual characteristics and development level of the child. Education aims at acquiring children’s self-care and cognitive skills, particularly social and communicative skills appropriate for age. The method that comes to the fore in scientific studies from behavioral therapies; Applied Behavior Analysis. Education is effective only when it is continuous and intensive. Learning the methods used in education by family members and using them where necessary, positively affects the development of the child.
What is going on in autism, depends on what, can we speak of healing?
Although autism is often known to be a lifelong condition from childhood to adulthood, in recent years there has been an increase in autism. In recent studies, it has been shown that 5-20% of children with early diagnosis and early intervention can be diagnosed.
Early age of first diagnosis, early initiation of appropriate educational intervention, intelligence level of the child, good language development and mild symptom severity have been shown to be the predictors of a favorable course in autism.

Discover Autism Early!

If you are a child;

If he doesn’t make eye contact or his eyes stick to something,
If he doesn’t look at you when you say his name and he pretends he doesn’t hear it,
His speech is behind his peers,
If he says some words over and over again,
With his finger, he doesn’t show what he wants and he uses your hand,
If it does not initiate or maintain a mutual relationship or game,
If his or her peers are not interested in games or toys,
If he doesn’t play imaginary games and always repeats the same game,
If there are different and repetitive movements such as wobbling, jumping, walking at fingertips, clapping arms,
If he is overactive, doesn’t make eye contact,
If you’re doing some unusual gestures, such as rotating and rotating some items,
If the physical contact overreacts or does not respond to sensory stimuli such as sound or light,
If he overreacts to the changes in order in his daily life,

It is important to bring a child and adolescent psychiatry specialist for autism. Early diagnosis in autism changes the quality of life positively.
Click on the link to get detailed information about the Koç University Hospital Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department.

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What is Bone Marrow? Stem Cell Therapy

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The bone marrow is found in the cavities in the center of the long bones in your body. Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection. Red blood cells (RBC) carry oxygen and platelets (PLT) help to clot formation to prevent bleeding.
What is a stem cell?
Stem cells are self-renewing and differentiating cells that are not present in any cell other than living organisms. Stem cells, when needed, differentiate them from the next to the cells, allowing the development, maturation and proliferation of the cells.
Stem cells are called embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells from adult stem cells are used in stem cell transplantation. Stem cells are also of great interest in non-hematological areas. In particular, stem cell therapies that are applied experimentally in cardiological and neurological diseases are the leading.
Stem cells are new immature blood cells. All blood cells begin as a stem cell. Thus, with stem cell transplantation, we can regenerate your blood cell formation skills. Stem cells tend to remain in the bone marrow, where the body can become any type of blood cell, but some are involved in the general circulation in blood vessels.
Stem Cell Transplantation is applied in the treatment of diseases?

Multiple myeloma
Various organ cancers,
Inadequate functioning of bone marrow,
Hereditary anemias,
Immune deficiencies
It is applied in the treatment of hereditary metabolic diseases.

How to obtain Stem Cells?
The stem cell can be obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood or cord blood. Stem cell harvesting from the bone marrow is performed under general or local anesthesia with a special needle by entering the donor’s hip bone once. Stem cell harvesting from peripheral blood is performed by transferring the stem cells located in the bone marrow into the bloodstream and then collecting with the apheresis device by applying a special drug called growth factor to the donor. Although bone marrow is used as a stem cell source in the first transplants in history, 75% of the patients have peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
If the stem blood from the cord blood is born, the baby is collected in the blood bag in 2-4 minutes with the help of the injector after the cord is cut. The collected stem cells are stored at 80 ° C-196 ° C using programmed or mechanical freezing methods by adding DMSO to the cryoprotectant substance under sterile conditions.
For more information about Koç University Hospital Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, click on the link.

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What are the symptoms of diabetes in children and what is the difference between adult diabetes?

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Symptoms of diabetes in children, the main problem in Type 1 diabetes is deficiency in the secretion of insulin hormone, whereas in Type 2 diabetes in adults, there is a disorder in the cell elements called ler receptor ana in which insulin hormone is bound to act. This disorder is called ”insulin resistance Bu. Although the mechanisms are different, the glucose taken with nutrients cannot enter the cell enough and accumulate in the blood.
What is the main difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes? What are the symptoms of diabetes?
The main difference between Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes is the rate at which clinical findings occur. In children with type 1 diabetes, symptoms such as drinking too much water, too much urination, weight loss, and fatigue occur suddenly in 2-3 weeks, while adult Type 2 diabetes symptoms occur over the years and often these symptoms may be overlooked for a long time.
What is the problem, how are the signals? How should families approach their children?
The most common findings in children with diabetes as well as adults are frequent and frequent urination, drinking a lot of water and increasing appetite, although not always seen. Families first say that children start to drink more water than usual, that they have a water bottle all the time, they do not get enough water, they are fed only with water. Too much urine becomes noticeable in the day when children go to the toilet frequently. Therefore, other findings should be investigated in children starting to ask for permission to go to the toilet during the course. Besides, it is noteworthy that children who do not wake up to urinate at night before awaken 1-2 times to urinate and sometimes wet under the night. In small children, mothers often begin to change diapers. Children lose weight despite increasing appetite. Girls may have fungal infection in the genital area, or infants may have persistent rashes.
Some children go to the doctor with non-specific findings such as fatigue, mild fever, abdominal pain, and families may not be able to say specific findings of diabetes. Children may have complaints of school performance, fatigue, and more frequent absenteeism than before. For this reason, it should be examined by the teachers that children start to make absenteeism.
Is early diagnosis important in children with diabetes?
Early diagnosis is very important. The symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, eyes collapse, deep and fast breathing (respiratory distress), and the smell of acetone in the mouth begin as a result of the exacerbation of insulin deficiency. There is a close relationship between the early discovery of diabetes findings or the risk of diabetes diagnosis in health care facilities and the application of a dangerous picture, such as a diabetes coma.
How is diabetes treated?
It is necessary to give insulin hormone from the moment of diagnosis in type of diabetes (type 1 diabetes) seen in children. In adults, sugar-lowering pills and diet may work in the initial period. In both types of diabetes, it is important to adhere to the principles of healthy eating and exercise regularly.
What can be done to facilitate the lives of children with diabetes?
The first step to make life easier for children with type 1 diabetes is to create an environment that will enable them to make peace with diabetes. Therefore, it is important not to discriminate against children in the home, school and other areas of daily life and to support them in their çocuklar new normal elik lives. In addition, the most important way to facilitate the lives of children with Type 1 diabetes is to benefit from new technologies related to blood sugar monitoring and insulin delivery, thereby alleviating their burden. You can make an appointment with our doctors by clicking on the link for more detailed information.
Click on the link to get detailed information about the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Department of Koç University Hospital.

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Causes Cough in Children?

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What causes cough in children and how often?
Cough is one of the reasons that causes the most frequent application in childhood. Cough is actually a normal reflex and protects the airway from environmental harmful particles, secretions and aspiration.
 Is every cough a symptom of disease?
Healthy children may cough 11 times a day without other symptoms.
However, cough may be a symptom of some diseases according to the severity and frequency. Acute cough is usually caused by viral upper respiratory tract infections. In children, 50% of coughs due to upper respiratory tract infections decrease in 10 days and 90% in 25 days. Children may experience such infections 6-8 times a year, and these infections can be seen in a row especially in the nursery or school period.

What are the main diseases that cause coughing?
Pneumonia, pertussis and allergic airways diseases are some of the diseases that cause cough. Pneumonia (pneumonia) is an inflammation of the lung tissue. Bacteria can occur mainly due to various microorganisms. Cough with fever, rapid breathing, such as sputum may be complaints. Listening findings of the lung are guiding in the diagnosis.
Pertussis cough; It is a cough that occurs in seizures, which does not allow for breathing in succession, which requires breathing with a long sigh at the end of coughs, and sometimes ends with vomiting. With the swelling of the main airway, larynx, or vocal cords, a child may experience coughing similar to dog barking. This may be caused by swelling or edema, infection or allergy in the airway.
How effective are drugs used to treat cough in children?
The efficacy of cough medications for the pediatric age group has not been established. The use of these drugs is not recommended for children under two years of age, especially because of their toxic effects. The use of drugs containing codeine is not recommended for children under 12 years of age due to suppression of the respiratory system.
For more information about the Department of Pediatrics, Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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What is Chronic Cough in Children and What Causes?

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Cough that lasts more than four weeks in children is defined as chronic cough and causes a decrease in quality of life. Chronic cough should be considered carefully because it may be an evidence of an underlying chronic lung disease.
The age of onset of cough is important. Coughing that begins in the neonatal period usually indicates an underlying underlying cause and requires an in-depth examination. Genetic diseases such as tracheo-oesophageal fistula, tracheomalacia, or cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia can be manifested by chronic cough from the newborn period. Cough; wheezing or wheezing, especially at night, if the child is difficult to breathe when it is moving, the possibility of asthma should be evaluated. With a continuous cough, runny nose, watery eyes, a feeling of itching in the throat, and nasal discharge, these children may have hay fever or sinusitis.
What causes chronic cough besides respiratory diseases?
It should also be taken into consideration that children may have fled a child’s airway at all times. When a child is evaluated by a doctor due to chronic cough, it can be suspected that a foreign body has escaped the airway according to the findings of the examination and radiological findings. In children, symptoms such as recurrent vomiting with cough, a bad taste in the mouth, burning in the chest may indicate gastroesophageal reflux. It is dry, repetitive, persistent, bursting, and psychogenic cough may come to mind especially in the coughs that are lost during sleep at night or when the child is busy with something he likes. It is useful to evaluate the psychological status of the child after it is understood that there are no other cough diseases. Considering the protective nature of the airway, cough suppression is harmful in many respiratory diseases.
For more information about the Department of Pediatrics, Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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Can Movement Disorders Be Treated with Botox?

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Botulinum toxin, known as Botox, has been used as a treatment method in some movement disorders. Some movement disorders such as hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm can be treated with this technique.
Hemifacial Spasm (contraction in one hundred, twitch)
What is Hemifacial Spasm?
It is a discomfort caused by involuntary contraction or twitching in half of a face. It affects the eyelids, cheek and mouth corner. It may occur continuously or intermittently.
What are the Symptoms of Hemifacial Spasm?
Initially, patients complain that they are more likely to break one eye. Then the contraction of the upper and lower eyelid and withdrawal in the mouth corner are accompanied by contraction. Increases the intensity with excitement, distress, fatigue and the use of facial muscles (eg chewing, speaking, facial muscles, etc.). Patients with such complaints have recently had eyeglasses changes or if tooth extraction has been performed, indicating that their complaints have occurred accordingly. These conditions facilitate the emergence of symptoms.
Why is this disease occurring?
The exact cause is unknown. However, in some of the cases, anomalies in the veins close to the face can cause this disease.
Can Hemifacial Spasm be cured by Botox treatment?

Medical treatment is often inadequate. Botulinum toxin application results in more successful results.
Blepharospasm (involuntary contraction of the eyelids)

What is Blepharospasm Disease?

It is an intermittent or sustained bilateral involuntary contraction of the eye muscles.
What are the symptoms of blepharospasm?
In patients, the first complaints begin in one eye, and in this eye uneasiness, frequent clipping, burning, sensitivity to light occurs. Difficulties arise while watching television, reading things or driving. These complaints gradually increase and involuntary closure of the eyelids is observed in both eyes. Even if you are asked, eyes cannot be opened. In advanced cases, the eyes may remain closed. Patients can therefore refer to eye clinics. Blepharospasm (eye closure spasm), this situation usually increases with stress, sleep is lost. Bright light enhances eye closure spasms, so most patients use dark-colored glasses. Spasms may increase when they are looking up or down, talking, eating, laughing, singing. Blepharospasm is more common in women, and the incidence above 50 years of age increases. In some patients, the contraction of the facial and neck muscles can be added to the eyelids.
Why does blepharospasm occur?
Usually the cause is unclear, but some patients may have lesions in certain parts of the brain. These lesions often develop due to stroke, multiple sclerosis, brain involvement and surgical interventions. It may occur in patients with refractory contractions, Parkinson’s disease, pediatric patients and eye disease.
Can blepharospasm be treated with Botox?
Drug therapy is generally unresponsive and with Botox treatments, in the first period, goodness develops for 3 months.

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