Why Parkinson’s Disease? What are the Symptoms?

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What is Parkinson’s disease?
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disease that starts with tremors, especially with slow motion (bradykinesia) and muscle stiffness. In the advanced stages of the disease, the balance disorder can be added to the table.
Where does Parkinson’s disease often start?
The disease often starts with a tremor in one hand. When the patient is at full rest, the movements are counted as money counts, or movements such as a rosary. The patient may become noticeable when walking, and may decrease when holding an object.

What’s the cause of Parkinson’s?
Parkinson’s disease is caused by the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. When the loss of dopamine-producing cells increases to 70%, symptoms are seen. Dopamine is a chemical substance that plays a role in the control and coordination of movements.
What factors affect the likelihood of developing Parkinson’s?
The rate of occurrence in individuals over 65 years is around 1%. The higher the age, the higher the incidence. The age of onset is usually 60 years, and there are cases that start earlier. The cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown. According to the results of many studies, genetic and environmental factors play a role. Individuals with Parkinson’s disease in their families have a higher risk of developing Parkinson’s disease than other individuals in the community.

How is Parkinson’s diagnosed?
The diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease is made clinically. Brain MRI and blood tests are done to exclude other causes of Parkinsonism and when necessary. The most important way to make a diagnosis is the detailed examination performed by an expert in this field.

How is Parkinson’s watching?
In the majority of patients with Parkinson’s, complaints of tremor may be the initial finding, as well as the initial finding. In some patients, slowness may be the predominant finding. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disease. There are different types of Parkinson’s disease and each has a different course. In some patients, the course is rather slow.
What is the differential diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease?
The most important symptom of Parkinson’s symptoms, which is observed as slowness in patients, called zi bradykinesia zi in the neurology language, is the symptom that must be definitely for diagnosis. On the face, it is called azalma bradimimi yavaş, it is seen as a slowness in the movement of facial muscles, a dimness in the face and a decrease in blink. Slowness can also occur in the arms and legs. The symptoms seen in patients with Parkinson’s are more pronounced than the other side of the body. The symptom known as rigidity or muscle stiffness is determined during the examination.
Some drugs used in the treatment of psychiatric patients, in the treatment of heart disease and nausea-vomiting used in the treatment of some drugs can produce a similar picture of Parkinson’s disease. When these drugs are discontinued, the symptoms disappear. The symptoms may increase when Parkinson’s patients use these drugs.

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Who Carries Risk of Large Bowel Cancer?

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Large bowel cancer is among the first 5 most common cancer according to the statistics of the Ministry of Health. A significant proportion of bowel cancer patients are in their 50s, and in recent years, they can be seen in younger age individuals for various reasons.
Bowel cancer is called rectum and colon cancer.
Who is at risk for large bowel cancer?

People with a family history of large bowel cancer have a higher risk of developing the disease than others and may be at a younger age.
Changes in genes increase the risk of cancer.
Previous cancer diseases carry the risk of being re-migrated.
Although polyps in the large intestine are benign, they are at risk of cancer. Therefore, it should be removed and checked at regular intervals.
Early diagnosis is very important.
Patients with ulcerative colitis and crown disease (inflammatory bowel disease) are at the risk of cancer.
Nutrition is extremely important. People who have a nutritional program that is weak in terms of fruits and vegetables, calcium, folate, and fiber, and which have an intensive diet in terms of animal fat and food, are at greater risk of developing colon cancer.
Cigarette smoking, as in all types of cancer, also triggers large bowel cancer and should be avoided.

What are the symptoms of large bowel cancer?

Changes in intestinal habits (diarrhea, constipation),
Thinner stools than usual,
Blood in the stool,
Intra-abdominal gas,
Feeling of cramping or bloating,
Unexplained weight loss,
Continuous fatigue may be symptoms of colon cancer such as nausea and vomiting.

When these findings are encountered, it is important to consult a doctor for early diagnosis. As a result of late diagnosis, cancerous cells can reach different sizes and make treatment difficult.

What are the methods used to diagnose large bowel cancer?
Finger Examination of the Rectum:
It is a manual method. After resting the patient’s complaint, if the suspected area is rectum, a finger examination procedure is performed. If any finding is found, further examinations are performed.
Colonoscopy is the method of imaging the entire wall of the colon. If polyps are detected by this procedure, they are removed and our patients are checked and followed up with the same procedure.
Endorectal Ultrasound:
Today, this technique is only used to clarify the diagnosis of very early stage rectal tumors. The rectum and surrounding tissues are displayed with the help of a computer that transforms the reflection of sound waves into images. In this way, the tumor will be informed about the depth of the rectum, lymph nodes and its spread to nearby tissues.
Computed tomography (CT):
Computerized tomography technology used for systemic staging is used to diagnose liver and lung metastases.
You can click on the link to get detailed information about Koç University Hospital General Surgery Department.

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What are the methods used to treat large bowel cancer?

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What are the methods used to treat large bowel cancer?
Surgical, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the main methods used in the treatment of colon cancer. The treatment process varies according to the stage and spread of the tumor.
In cases where cancer does not spread to distant organs, the main method is surgery. In this method, the tumor is removed and the surrounding solid tissue is removed. In some cases, the stool is taken out by placing the bag with the method called colostomy. This may be temporary or permanent in some patients. Methods such as laparoscopic surgery and robotic surgery, which cause less pain and quick recovery, are also applied in our country.
It is a medicated treatment to kill cancer cells. It is a frequently used therapy in some stages of colon cancer and in cases where it has spread to another part of the body.
Radiation Therapy:
More known as radiotherapy. It is aimed to destroy the cancer cells in the treated area with rays. Radiotherapy can be given with chemotherapy to reduce tumor preoperatively or to prevent postoperative recurrences.

What are the ways to prevent colon cancer?
In addition to all these screening methods, there are some risk reduction methods for prevention of colon cancer. Of them;

Physical exercise,
Getting rid of excess weight,
Smoking and drinking alcohol,
High-fiber, low-fat foods to consume foods firstly to keep in mind.

Koç University Hospital, Department of General Surgery, manages the processes in the diagnosis and treatment of colon and rectal cancers with the most accurate and up-to-date methods and presents them to the patients.
Click on the link to get detailed information about the Department of General Surgery at Koç University Hospital.

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Outer Ear Inflammation Should Not Be Your Nightmare In The Summer!

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With the arrival of the summer holiday plans are on the rise, but did you know that there is an increase in the proportion of some ear diseases with the arrival of the summer?
If these diseases are not dealt with in a timely and appropriate manner, they can cause your holiday pleasure to escape!
What is the most common ear disease in the summer?
The most common of these diseases are external ear infections (external ear infections). External ear canal; It is a very suitable environment for the growth of pathogens such as bacteria and fungi due to being moist, dark and hot.
Why does external ear inflammation increase in summer?
The most important reason for the increase of the external ear infection in summer is the unhygienic pool and sea water. In addition, after swimming, the external ear canal remains wet, ear sticks and similar tools can cause the risk of infection.
What are the symptoms of external ear inflammation?
In the ears of people with external ear inflammation;

Severe pain,
Hearing loss may occur. If these complaints occur, the person should consult an Otolaryngologist without losing any time.

How is external ear inflammation treated?
In the treatment of the disease, cleaning of the ear canal, ear drops, regular dressing, and rarely oral medication are used.
What kind of preventive measures can be taken?
Apart from the fact that the patient falls on the recommendations of the duty doctor during the treatment period and uses the drugs regularly; keeping the ear dry, avoiding water sports, scratching, scrubbing, cleaning behaviors. The use of ear plugs is not recommended since it can accelerate the spread of infection after the onset of infection.
How many days of external ear inflammation?
External ear inflammation will improve within 7 to 10 days if there is no other underlying disease (diabetes, external auditory stenosis, etc.). Patients should consult an Ear Nose Throat Doctor before returning to the pool, sea and water sports even after the symptoms disappear.
What measures can be taken against external otitis?
To keep your summer holiday as smooth as possible, keep your ears as dry as possible, to dry with a cotton or towel without coming into the outer ear canal after contact with water; keep you away from you and your family.
This article Prepared by Ozan Gokler.
For more information, please contact our Ear Nose Throat Department.

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Ways to Prevent Allergens

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Specific methods for the prevention of allergens such as house dust mites, pollen and pet are recommended.
What can be done to combat house dust mites?

Ventilate your home often (none of the house dust mites can survive in dry weather, especially when the humidity falls below 50%),
Never use steam machines,
Repair any fluid leakage anywhere in the house,
Change and wash your bedding at least once a week,
House dust mites are found at high rates on household items such as beds, pillows, quilts, carpets, thick fabric curtains and furniture. Do not use wool, goose down or feather beds, pillows and quilts, if possible, cover them with tear-resistant medical special covers,
Lift the carpet if possible,
Prefer thin tulle or roller blinds instead of thick or heavy curtains,
Keep as little room as possible in the room. Keep items such as books, trinket, toys in closed cupboards. Remove the plush and furry toys that the house dust mites can live intensively,
Clean the entire room with a vacuum cleaner with HEPA filter,
Take care not to keep pets at home and especially in the bedroom.

What measures are taken for pet allergy?

* The most effective way to control complaints is to completely remove the pet from the environment,
* Keep pets away from the bedroom,
* Clean the ventilation system filters frequently,
* Use HEPA filter ventilation devices in bedrooms.
What should be done to people who are allergic to pollen?

If you are allergic to pollen, do not go out in the spring and autumn season when the pollen is dense, especially in the morning and at noon, if it is not necessary in dry and windy weather,
For sporting activities, prefer indoor areas instead of open air,
Use sunglasses when you go out,
Change and ventilate your clothes when you come home,
If possible, take a shower every day or wash your hair and face with plenty of water,
Dry your laundry in the house during the pollen season,
Keep your doors and windows closed, especially during pollen
Use pollen filter air conditioner at home and in your car,
When using your car, make sure that the windows are closed,
If you are traveling on public transport, try to stay away from open windows or doors.

For more information about the Department of Allergy and Immunology at Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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What is Allergic Nezle? Spring in Children

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Tree pollen in late spring and early summer, meadow pollen at the end of the summer, weed pollens in the beginning of autumn in the air is mixed. These pollens reach the nose and eye surface and cause allergic rhinitis.
The pollen reaches the tissue called the mucosa, which paves the inner surface of the nose and causes an allergic reaction. It should be kept in mind that allergic conditions often start at an early age, but can also be seen in adulthood.
Seasonal Allergic Flu
People with pollen allergy experience allergic rhinitis during the season when they are allergic to pollen. However, weather conditions, changes in the surrounding environment and the person’s immune system, some years of mild complaints are experienced, some years, more severe complaints and the need for medication increases. In some patients, the eyes with the nose are also affected and this condition is called allergic conjunctivitis.
Allergic rhinitis throughout the year
If a person is susceptible to allergic substances found in closed environments, the symptoms of allergic rhinitis continue throughout the year. Allergic allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis are seen in individuals who have allergy to house dust mite, cat, dog, cockroach, mold fungus due to domestic humidity.
When should we think of allergic flu?
Children with allergic rhinitis can experience sneezing, nasal itching, runny nose and / or nasal congestion shortly after being exposed to pollens, cats, dogs and house dust mites. This movement is called an allergic salute because children often erase their noses upward; This movement may occur due to a horizontal line on the nose. This disease is usually accompanied by eye rash (allergic conjunctivitis) eyes redness, itching, watering is common. Nasal congestion and fullness in the vessels cause swelling and dark color under the eyes. Nasal discharge, headache, cough may accompany. Because of nasal congestion, children wakes up at night and wakes up in the morning tired. Fatigue, perception difficulties, sleep disorders adversely affect daily life.
Does allergic rhinitis increase the risk of other allergic diseases?
When they are allergic to the cause of the skin eczema, urticaria (hives) can be seen. Asthma symptoms may be seen in 10-40% of patients with allergic rhinitis, or asthma symptoms are increased in children with asthma.
Seasonal Allergic Diagnosis
The most important thing in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is the patient’s history. It should be questioned when symptoms are encountered, and how they occur. If the nose is exposed to pollen in the nose, itching, sneezing, clear runny nose should be considered spring fever. Allergen level measurement from the blood (pollen specific IgE) and prick allergy tests applied to the skin can be determined which particles are allergic to the individual.
How to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis?
Allergen avoidance is a priority in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. For this reason, in spring and early summer when pollen numbers are increased, it is recommended that people with spring fever should reduce the time zone for outdoor activities and do their outdoor activities in the morning or evening instead of afternoon hours.
In house of dust mite allergy patients should be removed moisture, moisture should be destroyed, mites holding mites, pillows, mattresses and pillows filled with wool, mattresses and quilts are recommended to be removed from the bedroom. Special non-permeable bed linens help treatment in patients with home dust allergy.
In the treatment of allergic rhinitis, nasal sprays and oral syrups or tablets may also be used to control symptoms. It is recommended that the physician regulate the medications by evaluating the severity of the allergic disease and the patient’s condition. In addition, vaccination therapy (immunotherapy) can be applied to patients who have severe allergic complaints and have limited response to drug treatment. This treatment, called immunotherapy, is applied in 2 different ways: there are injection forms applied to the tablet / drop or arm that melts under the tongue. Allergic reactions may develop during these treatments, so if you apply at least 3-4 years under the control of allergy physicians, the likelihood of successful long-term results is increasing.
For more information about the Department of Allergy and Immunology at Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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Non-Surgical Method in Prostate Growth: Prostate Embolization

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What is prostate enlargement?
Prostatic enlargement or prostatic hypertrophy, especially in men over 60 years of age is a disease that leads to difficulty in urination. It is so common in advanced ages that it has become one of the important indicators of old age. Prostate glands and diseases are an area of ​​interest to the Department of Urology.
What are the symptoms of prostate enlargement?
Patients who complain of difficulty in urination due to prostate enlargement, frequent urination, and complete emptying of the bladder after urination are usually recommended. The first treatment is the use of some drugs. As the years go by and complaints grow, there may be a need for surgery for treatment. In prostate enlargement, the standard and best treatment method in various surgery and non-surgical treatment methods is the reduction surgery of the prostate gland by entering through the urine channel called TUR.
What is Prostate Embolization?
Prostatic embolization is a new method of treating prostate enlargement with angioma without surgery and is performed by the Department of Interventional Radiology. The most important feature of prostate embolization is non-surgical treatment.

How is the treatment performed?
Treatment is done in the angiography room. Entering through the groin, a very thin catheter, called catheter, is entered into the prostate artery with plastic tubes and all the arteries within the prostate gland are blocked with very small plugs. This does not damage the prostate gland but reduces its feeding and reduces it. This shrinkage is long lasting. During angiography, the patient is awake, but as with all angiomas, the patient is given intravenous pain relief and relaxing medications for comfort. Therefore, it does not require anesthesia.
What is the duration of hospitalization of patients?
Patients can be sent home either on the same day or one day later. The procedure takes about two hours and after 4 hours, the patient starts walking and can continue his / her daily lives without interruption. Long hospital stay or long-term rest after treatment is not required.
Is prostate embolization risky? What are the side effects?
There are no side effects of surgery and it is very safe. Although it is a permanent treatment method, it may not be effective in every patient as in TUR surgery.
Prostate embolization is not the only method to replace TUR surgery, which is currently the best treatment, but it is a very good alternative to surgery. The growth of the prostate gland is an advanced age disease. In this group of patients, many diseases such as heart disease, sugar, blood pressure can increase the risks of anesthesia and surgery. These problems do not pose a great risk to angio treatment. Therefore, it is a recommended method for all prostate enlargement patients, especially in patients with surgical treatment.
Click here for detailed information about Koç University Hospital Interventional Radiology Department.

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Does Ultraviolet Ray Cause Skin Cancer?

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What is ultraviolet ray (UV)?
The wavelengths of the sun’s rays in the range of 280-400 nanometers are known as ultraviolet (UV) -A and -Brays. Exposure to these rays leads to the appearance of a sunburn that manifests with early redness and redness of the skin. In addition, skin cancers can cause harmful and dangerous effects, such as various sunspots, allergic symptoms, and the development of certain sunlight-triggered diseases, such as skin immune suppression and premature aging. The World Health Organization defined sun and artificial sun rays (solarium, solar lamps) as lam carcinogen yapay (cancer causing substance).
Is the amount of UV light associated with skin cancer development?
The total amount of ultraviolet radiation that is exposed to life-span and the number of sunburns, especially in childhood, are directly related to the risk of skin cancer development in adulthood. Tanning is caused by the increase of the amount of melanin in the skin (the pigment that gives the color to the skin) as a defense mechanism to prevent further damage due to UV damage of various cells in the skin. By the amount of increased melanin, the skin becomes darker and more UV radiation is prevented from being absorbed. However, this DNA damage is never fully repaired by the body and leads to the development of skin cancers. Children, especially children under 6 months of age, should not be exposed to direct sunlight as the skin of children is much more sensitive to sunlight.

Why should we protect the sun?
The goal of protection from the sun should not only prevent sunburn development, but also prevent the skin from changing color.
Measures to be taken for this purpose;

Avoid being outdoors between 10:00 and 16:00,
Choosing shade areas and using sunglasses with clothing and hats covering the body surface as broadly as possible,
Hats should be wide border to cover the neck and ears,
It is preferred that the garments be chosen from UV-resistant special products or from dark-colored, frequently woven linen and cotton fabrics that pass less than UV, or from fine-textured fabrics made of polyester, lycra, polypropylene,
Sunscreen products should also be used.

The above measures may reduce the risk of ultraviolet-related skin aging and skin cancer development.

This article Prepared by Deniz Akkaya.
You can contact our Dermatology Department for more information.

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