Does breast milk make jaundice?

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Does breast milk make jaundice? however, there are two reasons for the jaundice seen in breast-fed infants. From the Department of Child Health and Diseases (Neonatology) Dr. Tuğba Gürsoy explains these reasons for you:

The mother’s inadequate milk production or the baby’s not absorbing the baby as a result of the baby is not enough breast milk is seen due to. These babies lose excess weight and blood bilirubin levels rise. In this case, to increase the amount of milk, you should feed your baby as often as you like and ensure that your baby’s breast is fully understood during feeding.
Breast milk jaundice may be seen in newborn babies due to inadequate liver and intestines. It is usually seen after the first week of life, reaching its highest levels in the second week and then disappearing in weeks. Blood bilirubin levels rarely occur to require treatment.

Breastfeeding should be discontinued if breast milk is jaundiced in infants?
You should not stop breastfeeding your baby even if your baby has had jaundice; on the contrary, you should continue to breastfeed at frequent intervals. Make sure your baby is well fed and weight gain. You can get support for breastfeeding your baby. You can request breastfeeding counseling from the health personnel of your hospital.

How is Jaundice treated?
The most common treatment modality for jaundice is light therapy (phototherapy). The blue light that breaks down the bilirubin and releases it from the body is applied to the baby’s skin. Babies are naked under the light only with a cloth. The baby’s eyes are closed with specially produced tapes so that they are not damaged. Phototherapy is successful in most babies and no other treatment is required. Phototherapy is stopped when the baby’s level of bilirubin in the blood drops to safe levels. Phototherapy is a safe treatment method, with little side effects. May cause diarrhea or skin rash.

Blood exchange is applied in emergencies such as blood group incompatibility, where the level of bilirubin increases to dangerous levels and should therefore be rapidly discarded. The bilirubin-rich blood of the baby is taken, instead of the blood from the blood bank is given.

What can be done to prevent the development of severe jaundice in infants?
Various measures can be taken to prevent the development of serious jaundice in infants:

The amount of bilirubin is measured before the postpartum baby is discharged from the hospital and the control is adjusted according to this result.
Family members are given training on how to follow the baby’s jaundice at home and signals of danger. Considering the increased jaundice, the hospital is immediately referred to.
In the babies who need treatment, treatment is started as soon as possible.

Click on the link to get detailed information about the Department of Pediatrics at Koç University Hospital.

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What causes the growth of the nasal flesh in children?

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Growth of Genetic Meat in Children
Fungal growth is one of the most common diseases in children. Geniz is the name given to the space behind the nose that combines the mouth with the nose. Adenoid tissue in the flesh or medical language is a lymphoepithelial tissue in this region. Aphimous meat with tonsils, nose and mouth through the body as a part of the immune system to fight against infections. The growth of pubescent meat usually occurs between 3-7 years of age, when children are most frequently confronted with infection. As the age progresses, the growth decreases and the nasal passages in adulthood are almost lost. From our Ear Nose Throat Department. Ozan Gokler informs about Geniz Meat:
What are the symptoms of flesh growth?
Nasal congestion, difficulty in breathing through the nose, accordingly mouth breathing, open mouth, snoring, frequent upper respiratory tract and middle ear infections.
How is a flesh diagnosis made?
The history of the patients and the families are almost sufficient for the diagnosis. In the Otorhinolaryngology examination, the nasal lobe can be seen endoscopically with special instruments by mouth and nose. X-rays can also help diagnose if necessary.
How is the process of treating the flesh meat?
Treatment of the growth of pheromone is surgery. Surgery can be performed at any age when the indication is correct. The operation is very easy for both the surgeon and the child, it is performed under general anesthesia and the duration is about 5-10 minutes. Different methods can be used as surgical technique. No matter what method is used, the complications related to surgery are very low. The operated child is discharged on the same day. Children may continue their normal life the day after surgery. Surgery should be avoided in children with cleft palate or blood clotting problem.

Be careful!
Nephrine growth, which is not properly treated or not treated timely, may lead to greater and permanent problems. Enlarged nasal flesh may adversely affect middle ear ventilation due to its anatomical position. As a result of the inadequate ventilation of the middle ear, fluid collection in the middle ear can cause hearing loss and chronic otitis media. Sleep quality is reduced due to nasal congestion and snoring. Decreased sleep quality may lead to distraction and, consequently, a decrease in course achievement.
Untreated chronic nasal flesh growth, obstructive sleep apnea in children, upper airway resistance syndrome, swallowing and speech disorder, decrease in taste and odor, abnormal facial and tooth development, growth and growth retardation, sinusitis, pharyngitis and lung infections may cause.
It is very important for the healthy development of children that it is very easy to diagnose and treat this childhood disease, which is very common and easy to diagnose and treat.
Click on the link to get detailed information about Koç University Hospital’s Otolaryngology Department.

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Causes Cough in Children?

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What causes cough in children and how often?
Cough is one of the reasons that causes the most frequent application in childhood. Cough is actually a normal reflex and protects the airway from environmental harmful particles, secretions and aspiration.
 Is every cough a symptom of disease?
Healthy children may cough 11 times a day without other symptoms.
However, cough may be a symptom of some diseases according to the severity and frequency. Acute cough is usually caused by viral upper respiratory tract infections. In children, 50% of coughs due to upper respiratory tract infections decrease in 10 days and 90% in 25 days. Children may experience such infections 6-8 times a year, and these infections can be seen in a row especially in the nursery or school period.

What are the main diseases that cause coughing?
Pneumonia, pertussis and allergic airways diseases are some of the diseases that cause cough. Pneumonia (pneumonia) is an inflammation of the lung tissue. Bacteria can occur mainly due to various microorganisms. Cough with fever, rapid breathing, such as sputum may be complaints. Listening findings of the lung are guiding in the diagnosis.
Pertussis cough; It is a cough that occurs in seizures, which does not allow for breathing in succession, which requires breathing with a long sigh at the end of coughs, and sometimes ends with vomiting. With the swelling of the main airway, larynx, or vocal cords, a child may experience coughing similar to dog barking. This may be caused by swelling or edema, infection or allergy in the airway.
How effective are drugs used to treat cough in children?
The efficacy of cough medications for the pediatric age group has not been established. The use of these drugs is not recommended for children under two years of age, especially because of their toxic effects. The use of drugs containing codeine is not recommended for children under 12 years of age due to suppression of the respiratory system.
For more information about the Department of Pediatrics, Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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What is Chronic Cough in Children and What Causes?

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Cough that lasts more than four weeks in children is defined as chronic cough and causes a decrease in quality of life. Chronic cough should be considered carefully because it may be an evidence of an underlying chronic lung disease.
The age of onset of cough is important. Coughing that begins in the neonatal period usually indicates an underlying underlying cause and requires an in-depth examination. Genetic diseases such as tracheo-oesophageal fistula, tracheomalacia, or cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia can be manifested by chronic cough from the newborn period. Cough; wheezing or wheezing, especially at night, if the child is difficult to breathe when it is moving, the possibility of asthma should be evaluated. With a continuous cough, runny nose, watery eyes, a feeling of itching in the throat, and nasal discharge, these children may have hay fever or sinusitis.
What causes chronic cough besides respiratory diseases?
It should also be taken into consideration that children may have fled a child’s airway at all times. When a child is evaluated by a doctor due to chronic cough, it can be suspected that a foreign body has escaped the airway according to the findings of the examination and radiological findings. In children, symptoms such as recurrent vomiting with cough, a bad taste in the mouth, burning in the chest may indicate gastroesophageal reflux. It is dry, repetitive, persistent, bursting, and psychogenic cough may come to mind especially in the coughs that are lost during sleep at night or when the child is busy with something he likes. It is useful to evaluate the psychological status of the child after it is understood that there are no other cough diseases. Considering the protective nature of the airway, cough suppression is harmful in many respiratory diseases.
For more information about the Department of Pediatrics, Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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Outer Ear Inflammation Should Not Be Your Nightmare In The Summer!

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With the arrival of the summer holiday plans are on the rise, but did you know that there is an increase in the proportion of some ear diseases with the arrival of the summer?
If these diseases are not dealt with in a timely and appropriate manner, they can cause your holiday pleasure to escape!
What is the most common ear disease in the summer?
The most common of these diseases are external ear infections (external ear infections). External ear canal; It is a very suitable environment for the growth of pathogens such as bacteria and fungi due to being moist, dark and hot.
Why does external ear inflammation increase in summer?
The most important reason for the increase of the external ear infection in summer is the unhygienic pool and sea water. In addition, after swimming, the external ear canal remains wet, ear sticks and similar tools can cause the risk of infection.
What are the symptoms of external ear inflammation?
In the ears of people with external ear inflammation;

Itching,
Severe pain,
Congestion,
Stream
Hearing loss may occur. If these complaints occur, the person should consult an Otolaryngologist without losing any time.

How is external ear inflammation treated?
In the treatment of the disease, cleaning of the ear canal, ear drops, regular dressing, and rarely oral medication are used.
What kind of preventive measures can be taken?
Apart from the fact that the patient falls on the recommendations of the duty doctor during the treatment period and uses the drugs regularly; keeping the ear dry, avoiding water sports, scratching, scrubbing, cleaning behaviors. The use of ear plugs is not recommended since it can accelerate the spread of infection after the onset of infection.
How many days of external ear inflammation?
External ear inflammation will improve within 7 to 10 days if there is no other underlying disease (diabetes, external auditory stenosis, etc.). Patients should consult an Ear Nose Throat Doctor before returning to the pool, sea and water sports even after the symptoms disappear.
What measures can be taken against external otitis?
To keep your summer holiday as smooth as possible, keep your ears as dry as possible, to dry with a cotton or towel without coming into the outer ear canal after contact with water; keep you away from you and your family.
This article Prepared by Ozan Gokler.
For more information, please contact our Ear Nose Throat Department.

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What is Allergic Nezle? Spring in Children

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Tree pollen in late spring and early summer, meadow pollen at the end of the summer, weed pollens in the beginning of autumn in the air is mixed. These pollens reach the nose and eye surface and cause allergic rhinitis.
The pollen reaches the tissue called the mucosa, which paves the inner surface of the nose and causes an allergic reaction. It should be kept in mind that allergic conditions often start at an early age, but can also be seen in adulthood.
Seasonal Allergic Flu
People with pollen allergy experience allergic rhinitis during the season when they are allergic to pollen. However, weather conditions, changes in the surrounding environment and the person’s immune system, some years of mild complaints are experienced, some years, more severe complaints and the need for medication increases. In some patients, the eyes with the nose are also affected and this condition is called allergic conjunctivitis.
Allergic rhinitis throughout the year
If a person is susceptible to allergic substances found in closed environments, the symptoms of allergic rhinitis continue throughout the year. Allergic allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis are seen in individuals who have allergy to house dust mite, cat, dog, cockroach, mold fungus due to domestic humidity.
When should we think of allergic flu?
Children with allergic rhinitis can experience sneezing, nasal itching, runny nose and / or nasal congestion shortly after being exposed to pollens, cats, dogs and house dust mites. This movement is called an allergic salute because children often erase their noses upward; This movement may occur due to a horizontal line on the nose. This disease is usually accompanied by eye rash (allergic conjunctivitis) eyes redness, itching, watering is common. Nasal congestion and fullness in the vessels cause swelling and dark color under the eyes. Nasal discharge, headache, cough may accompany. Because of nasal congestion, children wakes up at night and wakes up in the morning tired. Fatigue, perception difficulties, sleep disorders adversely affect daily life.
Does allergic rhinitis increase the risk of other allergic diseases?
When they are allergic to the cause of the skin eczema, urticaria (hives) can be seen. Asthma symptoms may be seen in 10-40% of patients with allergic rhinitis, or asthma symptoms are increased in children with asthma.
Seasonal Allergic Diagnosis
The most important thing in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is the patient’s history. It should be questioned when symptoms are encountered, and how they occur. If the nose is exposed to pollen in the nose, itching, sneezing, clear runny nose should be considered spring fever. Allergen level measurement from the blood (pollen specific IgE) and prick allergy tests applied to the skin can be determined which particles are allergic to the individual.
How to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis?
Allergen avoidance is a priority in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. For this reason, in spring and early summer when pollen numbers are increased, it is recommended that people with spring fever should reduce the time zone for outdoor activities and do their outdoor activities in the morning or evening instead of afternoon hours.
In house of dust mite allergy patients should be removed moisture, moisture should be destroyed, mites holding mites, pillows, mattresses and pillows filled with wool, mattresses and quilts are recommended to be removed from the bedroom. Special non-permeable bed linens help treatment in patients with home dust allergy.
In the treatment of allergic rhinitis, nasal sprays and oral syrups or tablets may also be used to control symptoms. It is recommended that the physician regulate the medications by evaluating the severity of the allergic disease and the patient’s condition. In addition, vaccination therapy (immunotherapy) can be applied to patients who have severe allergic complaints and have limited response to drug treatment. This treatment, called immunotherapy, is applied in 2 different ways: there are injection forms applied to the tablet / drop or arm that melts under the tongue. Allergic reactions may develop during these treatments, so if you apply at least 3-4 years under the control of allergy physicians, the likelihood of successful long-term results is increasing.
For more information about the Department of Allergy and Immunology at Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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Attention to Child Diseases in the Summer!

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Parents Beware!
Have you taken the necessary measures to ensure that your children have a healthy summer?
Pediatric diseases frequently seen in summer:

Solar strikes,
Burns,
Fluid intake deficiencies,
Infections related to water pollution,
Infections that can pass through the pool and sea,
Traumatic conditions such as falling,
Skin infections including sclerosis and fungi.

Solar impacts affect younger children at a higher rate, so sun burns in children exposed to unprotected outdoors during sunlight may cause sunstroke due to increased heat.
Due to the sensitivity of children’s skin, they are also exposed to UV rays that will cause skin cancer in the long term. In order to avoid such situations, you should prefer to go out in the morning or afternoon sun when the angle of the sun comes inclined.
When taking your children to the sun, you should use a hat and sunscreen and all precautions should be taken to protect from the sun. Sun creams should be applied before sun exposure. It should not be forgotten that children are exposed to sunlight in the water during the summer.

What should you do if your child has a sunburn?
If your child has sun burns, they should be used with cool treatments and creams that help to heal wounds. It should be kept in mind that the burned skin will be open to infections and care should be taken to clean the area. If a burned area is collected, a doctor should be consulted.
Measures to be taken in the summer period to prevent child diseases:

Pool and sea cleaning should be paid attention to in the preferred accommodation places during the summer holiday.
The child should not be allowed to swallow water or stay in wet clothing.
It should be noted that chlorine in the ponds is not well adjusted and may be irritating or allergic to the skin.
Itching, skin discoloration or skin lesions may occur. Your child should take a shower every day and maintain mild moisturizers.
As a result of contact with contaminated water, urinary tract infections and susceptibility to cystitis may increase in children. Vaginitis may be seen in girls presenting with discharge. Care should be taken to change the laundry frequently.
When urinating, burning, pity, urinary incontinence, blood in the urine, abdominal pain, fever, vomiting should definitely seek a doctor.
Your child’s mouth is dry, the tears are reduced, the urine is dark and the lesser are the warning signals about the thirst. In such a case, you should consult with your doctor after you have supplemented with fluids and given antipyretics.

Be careful against insects, bees and tick bites in picnic areas or open spaces, should be dressed in appropriate closed clothing, and the child’s body should be checked by peeling.
The bed should be placed in the mosquito net, the bed should be noted above the floor. Chemical fly repellents should not be applied to the child’s skin excessively.
Children with bee venom allergy should take the necessary precautions and open air.
It should be remembered that the child should be in the presence of watery, buttermilk or fruit juice and to be encouraged for fluid intake.
One of the most frequently affected organs during exposure to polluted water is the eye. Allergic infective conjunctivitis can be observed. Visual blur, pain in the eyes, burning and stinging sensation, redness, inflammatory discharge occurs. The ear can also be affected frequently, causing middle and external ear infections.
Hearing or loss of hearing, feeling of fullness, itching, discharge and fever may occur.
There may be an increase in summer diarrhea after ingestion of the child’s water, the contamination of water sources in summer or the ingestion of spoiled and infected foods kept in the room air. Vomiting and diarrhea may be accompanied by fever.

Happy peaceful and healthy holidays, taking all the precautions for your child and yourself!

This article Prepared by Hacer Efnan Okuyan.
You can contact our Pediatrics Department for more information.

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Fear of School: Alas, my child does not want to go to school!

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In the early period of schooling, especially in the first year of the child’s meeting with the school, fear of school is frequently encountered. In primary school first grade students, fear of school is short term (not exceeding one month), decreasing in quality and in a level which does not cause serious problems. The family must take the child to school in a determined manner and this familiarization period must be carried out in cooperation with the school guidance service and teacher.
Fear of school may require psychiatric support in some cases.
At which stage should parents apply for psychiatric support?
If your child has a fear of a school that lasts more than a month and does not decrease over time, you may need support from experts. These school-feared children may complain of physical ailments such as headache, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting when school time comes. Therefore, there may be multiple doctor applications. These symptoms may be accompanied by anger outbursts, intolerance, fear of separation, or family behavior.
Most of the time, children do not want to leave their parents who come to school, they like to go out and go home during classes. Complaints of the child sent home usually disappear at home, and complaints appear again the next morning. Sometimes children may refuse to leave the house.

Why do children fear a school?
Moving, change in family dynamics and such stressful events may have triggered school fear. The underlying causes may be something that happens to parents when they are in school, fearing another student, bullying, or fear of failure. Transition periods (starting school for the first time, changing schools, starting with secondary school or high school, etc.) can trigger school fear.
In cases where the fear of school is not resolved and concerns are kept away from school for a long time, serious educational or social problems may arise in the child. Treatment of fear requires the cooperation of health personnel, school staff, guidance teacher and the whole family.
What can the family do to overcome school fear?

1. Seek help from child mental health workers (child psychiatrist, specialist child psychologist, etc.).
The most important step to overcome the fear of school is to understand the cause of fear. The reasons underlying the reluctance of your child to school are tried to be understood by using various techniques and the most appropriate treatment method is provided to the child. It may also be comfortable for your child to know that it is always a safe place to go and talk.
2. Talk to your child.
Your child needs to share his feelings and concerns with you. Don’t show that you don’t take the child’s fear seriously by saying in over time “. Talk about her fears and show that you understand her and you’re willing to help.
3. Talk to school staff.
Teach teachers, guidance counselors, infirmaries and the school head. Together we collaborate in a solution-oriented manner.
4. Get your child to school gradually (eg by increasing school hours each week).

5. Highlight the beautiful aspects of the school.
Emphasize that your child can play with friends at school, make new friends, have fun at recess and learn new things at school.
6. Remove all fun activities at home during school hours.
If your child refuses to go to school, avoid access to all televisions, tablets and toys in the house. When the child is at home, he / she should not have a more enjoyable time at school.
7. Tell your child that he / she can reach you at certain times (during breaks, lunch breaks).

8. Knowing that your child can reach you or another adult during school hours makes him feel safe and secure.
9. Tell your child that his family will be safe when he / she is at school.
Patiently repeat that there will be nothing happening to you when you go to school, hugging your child, saying nice and positive words.
10. Guide your child to hobby and interests.
Entertainment means relaxation. With hobbies, your child may be headed for other things and help them think less of school-related concerns. Hobbies also increase self-confidence.
This article Prepared by Tuba Mutluer.
For more information, please contact our Child and Adolescent Mental Health (Psychiatry) department.

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Things to consider when preparing a lunch box

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This period is the period between pre-school and adolescence and it is the first period in which children feel the most distinctive being away from home in the majority of the day. Again, mostly children are away from home, so individuals outside their families are also influential in their food choices. In this process, children may want to make their own food choices.
The 6-12 age range is the period of growth for children. Each year an average of 5 cm length is extended, 2 kg weight increase is observed. For girls, the fastest growth and development age is 10-14 and 12-16 in males.
Do not compare between children!

It is not correct to compare energy needs among children. For each child, height, weight, age, physical activity level vary. The basal metabolic rate varies accordingly. There is no special food source for their growth. Most of the calories taken are; cereals, fruit and vegetables, dairy products and legumes, meat products, such as protein-rich foods should be provided. Oil, salt and sugar content is not with packed foods!
According to the 2010 Diet Guidelines, calcium, potassium, vitamin D and fiber intake in children have been observed. Up to 2-3 cups of milk per day significantly meet the calcium requirement of children.
You can choose your milk preference from those enriched with vitamin D. If your child has enough time in the sun and the intake of their resources is sufficient, vitamin D supplementation is not needed. By increasing the amount of fruits and vegetables can be removed fiber needs. In order to prevent potassium deficiency, the consumption of fruits, vegetables and dried legumes should be taken into consideration.
What should be the breakfast habit?

Breakfast in school-age children is an important factor affecting success and growth. Therefore the content should be of high quality. Milk or freshly squeezed juice can be an option for children who cannot have breakfast or have a habit.
Practical breakfast options:

Toast made with cheese, freshly squeezed juice,
Cereal, milk and banana,
Homemade jam, cheese, pancakes,
Fruits, dried raisins, milk, oatmeal.

How will my child meet his daily energy needs?
Children should take 25-35% of their daily energy needs from fats. Fish, oilseeds, vegetable oils containing more polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids should be preferred.

How do I prepare the right lunchbox for my child?
In order to prepare the right snack and the right lunch box for the school, you should first ask and learn about the alternatives that your child will consume and will consume in every food group.
In the kitchen, you should spend time with your child and teach them the places in the kitchen. Fresh fruits and vegetables can be seen in the process of being at home where the places can be washed, ready to eat ready to eat will be useful in terms of habit.
Recommendations for the feeding bag
(If your child is attending school for half a day or if he / she is going to school for a full day and having lunch at the school, it is enough for him / her to have snacks at school)

At home, there are cakes, cookies, etc. with sugar and low-fat, plenty of nuts / almonds / walnuts. next to milk
Fruit, milk and nuts / almonds / walnuts
Whole-grain bread with homemade jam, marmalade, peanut / hazelnut paste and milk
Home-prepared low-fat plenty of cheese pie and fruit

(If the child is in full-time education and not lunch at school)

Whole-wheat bread with egg / chicken / tuna sandwich, one fruit and milk / buttermilk
Cereal flakes, milk, fruits and oil seeds
Cheese sandwich or toast with whole grain bread, fruit and milk / ayran
Pasta with vegetables, cheese, oilseeds, fruit / juice

If your child refuses to eat some food Ç

Playing games for children will be very attractive and can forget to eat. In addition, children may not like some of the nutrients, forcing them to create a feeling of disgust, rejection against the food. In this case, the child should not go over it, should be tried to eat again later. If the child refuses to eat the food every time he tries to eat as a side dish with other dishes.
The lack of food, the lack of a table setting, not to sit on the table, to consume a single type of food in the future to choose food, to reduce the ability to eat and unbalanced food. Children should have regular meal times, not including nutrients that are not nutritious, such as chocolate, sugar and acidic beverages.
This article has been prepared by Dietician Aslıhan Yağcıoğlu.
For more information please contact our Nutrition and Diet Department.

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