Who Carries Risk of Large Bowel Cancer?

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Large bowel cancer is among the first 5 most common cancer according to the statistics of the Ministry of Health. A significant proportion of bowel cancer patients are in their 50s, and in recent years, they can be seen in younger age individuals for various reasons.
Bowel cancer is called rectum and colon cancer.
Who is at risk for large bowel cancer?

People with a family history of large bowel cancer have a higher risk of developing the disease than others and may be at a younger age.
Changes in genes increase the risk of cancer.
Previous cancer diseases carry the risk of being re-migrated.
Although polyps in the large intestine are benign, they are at risk of cancer. Therefore, it should be removed and checked at regular intervals.
Early diagnosis is very important.
Patients with ulcerative colitis and crown disease (inflammatory bowel disease) are at the risk of cancer.
Nutrition is extremely important. People who have a nutritional program that is weak in terms of fruits and vegetables, calcium, folate, and fiber, and which have an intensive diet in terms of animal fat and food, are at greater risk of developing colon cancer.
Cigarette smoking, as in all types of cancer, also triggers large bowel cancer and should be avoided.

What are the symptoms of large bowel cancer?

Changes in intestinal habits (diarrhea, constipation),
Thinner stools than usual,
Blood in the stool,
Intra-abdominal gas,
Feeling of cramping or bloating,
Unexplained weight loss,
Continuous fatigue may be symptoms of colon cancer such as nausea and vomiting.

When these findings are encountered, it is important to consult a doctor for early diagnosis. As a result of late diagnosis, cancerous cells can reach different sizes and make treatment difficult.

What are the methods used to diagnose large bowel cancer?
Finger Examination of the Rectum:
It is a manual method. After resting the patient’s complaint, if the suspected area is rectum, a finger examination procedure is performed. If any finding is found, further examinations are performed.
Colonoscopy is the method of imaging the entire wall of the colon. If polyps are detected by this procedure, they are removed and our patients are checked and followed up with the same procedure.
Endorectal Ultrasound:
Today, this technique is only used to clarify the diagnosis of very early stage rectal tumors. The rectum and surrounding tissues are displayed with the help of a computer that transforms the reflection of sound waves into images. In this way, the tumor will be informed about the depth of the rectum, lymph nodes and its spread to nearby tissues.
Computed tomography (CT):
Computerized tomography technology used for systemic staging is used to diagnose liver and lung metastases.
You can click on the link to get detailed information about Koç University Hospital General Surgery Department.

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What are the methods used to treat large bowel cancer?

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What are the methods used to treat large bowel cancer?
Surgical, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the main methods used in the treatment of colon cancer. The treatment process varies according to the stage and spread of the tumor.
In cases where cancer does not spread to distant organs, the main method is surgery. In this method, the tumor is removed and the surrounding solid tissue is removed. In some cases, the stool is taken out by placing the bag with the method called colostomy. This may be temporary or permanent in some patients. Methods such as laparoscopic surgery and robotic surgery, which cause less pain and quick recovery, are also applied in our country.
It is a medicated treatment to kill cancer cells. It is a frequently used therapy in some stages of colon cancer and in cases where it has spread to another part of the body.
Radiation Therapy:
More known as radiotherapy. It is aimed to destroy the cancer cells in the treated area with rays. Radiotherapy can be given with chemotherapy to reduce tumor preoperatively or to prevent postoperative recurrences.

What are the ways to prevent colon cancer?
In addition to all these screening methods, there are some risk reduction methods for prevention of colon cancer. Of them;

Physical exercise,
Getting rid of excess weight,
Smoking and drinking alcohol,
High-fiber, low-fat foods to consume foods firstly to keep in mind.

Koç University Hospital, Department of General Surgery, manages the processes in the diagnosis and treatment of colon and rectal cancers with the most accurate and up-to-date methods and presents them to the patients.
Click on the link to get detailed information about the Department of General Surgery at Koç University Hospital.

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Outer Ear Inflammation Should Not Be Your Nightmare In The Summer!

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With the arrival of the summer holiday plans are on the rise, but did you know that there is an increase in the proportion of some ear diseases with the arrival of the summer?
If these diseases are not dealt with in a timely and appropriate manner, they can cause your holiday pleasure to escape!
What is the most common ear disease in the summer?
The most common of these diseases are external ear infections (external ear infections). External ear canal; It is a very suitable environment for the growth of pathogens such as bacteria and fungi due to being moist, dark and hot.
Why does external ear inflammation increase in summer?
The most important reason for the increase of the external ear infection in summer is the unhygienic pool and sea water. In addition, after swimming, the external ear canal remains wet, ear sticks and similar tools can cause the risk of infection.
What are the symptoms of external ear inflammation?
In the ears of people with external ear inflammation;

Severe pain,
Hearing loss may occur. If these complaints occur, the person should consult an Otolaryngologist without losing any time.

How is external ear inflammation treated?
In the treatment of the disease, cleaning of the ear canal, ear drops, regular dressing, and rarely oral medication are used.
What kind of preventive measures can be taken?
Apart from the fact that the patient falls on the recommendations of the duty doctor during the treatment period and uses the drugs regularly; keeping the ear dry, avoiding water sports, scratching, scrubbing, cleaning behaviors. The use of ear plugs is not recommended since it can accelerate the spread of infection after the onset of infection.
How many days of external ear inflammation?
External ear inflammation will improve within 7 to 10 days if there is no other underlying disease (diabetes, external auditory stenosis, etc.). Patients should consult an Ear Nose Throat Doctor before returning to the pool, sea and water sports even after the symptoms disappear.
What measures can be taken against external otitis?
To keep your summer holiday as smooth as possible, keep your ears as dry as possible, to dry with a cotton or towel without coming into the outer ear canal after contact with water; keep you away from you and your family.
This article Prepared by Ozan Gokler.
For more information, please contact our Ear Nose Throat Department.

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What diseases does hyperbaric oxygen therapy treat?

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Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is an evidence-based type of treatment that has been shown to be fully pressurized within a closed pressure chamber, and is based on a 100% oxygen inhalation at an intermittent pressure from 1 ATA, ie above sea level. In the single or multi-person pressure chambers, the patient is given a mask, hood or endotracheal tube (tube attached to the trachea) according to the patient’s clinical condition and needs.
Hiberbaric Oxygen Therapy can be used in the treatment of many diseases such as sudden hearing loss, sudden vision loss, bone infection, bone death, diabetic foot injury.
Sudden Hearing Loss:
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy accelerates healing by increasing the oxygen level in the inner ear in patients with sudden hearing loss. Patients should start hyperbaric oxygen therapy at an early stage. The best results can be obtained in patients in whom hyperbaric oxygen therapy started within the first 72 hours. Depending on the needs of patients, more than one session treatment can be performed daily.
Sudden Vision Loss:
Sudden loss of vision is an emergency occurring as a result of obstruction of the vessels supplying the retinal layer of the eye. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can maintain oxygenation even if the retinal vessels are blocked. While hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be started at the earliest hour in patients with sudden visual loss, patients should be referred to hyperbaric oxygen treatment centers without losing time. The number of sessions and the frequency of sessions should be planned by the experts in Underwater Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine according to the response to treatment.
Bone Infection:
The partial oxygen pressure in the developing bones is 17-23 mmHg, approximately half of the healthy bones. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy helps to heal the infection by elevating the partial oxygen pressure in bone infections to 1000-1200 mmHg. While the total number of sessions is based on the response of the patient to the treatment, the duration of hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions in bone infections is 90-120 minutes.
Bone Death:
Bone death is a bone disease that occurs as a result of disruption in the blood supply of the bones, decreases the quality of life, and has pain and limitation of movement. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can reduce edema, promote new vessel formation and contribute to bone reconstruction when administered early. During the hyperbaric oxygen treatment, patients can be monitored for pain and limitation of movement and the total number of sessions can be determined.
Diabetic Foot Wound:
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases the level of oxygen in the blood and non-healing wound area in diabetic foot wounds. Thus, by reducing infection and reducing the wound, the healing process is accelerated. For this reason, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used as an adjunctive treatment method in the prevention of amputation and loss of limb in the foot wounds of diabetes patients.
Each patient’s response to treatment may be different, and the patients should be evaluated by a specialist in hyperbaric medicine.
How is hyperbaric oxygen therapy applied?
Patients receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy usually breathe 100% oxygen through the masks they wear in a closed pressure chamber for 90-120 minutes. During the treatment, patients take their time off and mask their air breaks. In order to prevent disruption of the treatment hours, the patients can take their medication into the pressure chamber and the medicines that are deemed appropriate by the doctor.
The treatment can be stopped within a few minutes if any complaint or necessity is developed during the treatment. The total number of sessions that need to be performed varies according to the disease, and can be applied more than once a day in cases where it is necessary.
How do patients feel during treatment?
During hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the air pressure in the pressure chamber increases, while the air travel feels like a descent in the ears. Patients can synchronize the pressure in the ear with some movements, such as swallowing. Patients are informed in detail about how to easily adapt the middle ear pressure to external pressure.
Is it possible to communicate with the patient during treatment?
In Koç University Hospital, the pressure chambers are semi-acrylic, ie, about 1 meter of transparent, pressure-resistant acrylic material, and our patients can be visually monitored during the entire treatment session and audibly with the device-mounted sound system. During the whole treatment period, patients are monitored by automatic pressure system by the pressure chamber operator.
What are the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on diseases?
100% oxygen inhalation under high pressure hemoglobin-mediated …

What is Thalassemia Mediterranean Anemia?

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In humans, oxygen is transported through hemoglobin (Hb), which also gives the blood its red color. The main hemoglobin in adults consists of two alpha and two beta, four different globin chains and named as Hb A. Thalassemia (Mediterranean Anemia) is a genetic disease caused by the loss or disappearance of one or more globin chains. Since hemoglobin is produced incorrectly in this disease, red blood cells containing this hemoglobin are destroyed and anemia is formed. Anemia can occur in very severe forms, ranging from very mild laboratory changes to deaths in the womb.
Mediterranean anemia is studied in two main groups as alpha and beta thalassemia. The Mediterranean basin of the world is common in parts of the Middle East, India and Far East Asia. Thalassemia is seen in regions where malaria is common in the world because it protects human against malaria in thousands of years of human evolution. In our country, it is more common in Thrace and Mediterranean Region.
What are the symptoms and signs of Mediterranean Anemia?

Jaundice in the eyes,
There may be complaints of bloating in the abdomen.
Spleen and liver can grow in patients.
Changes in the face and head bones due to persistent anemia in their severe forms (protrusion in the forehead and cheekbones, etc.).
Growth retardation can be seen in heavy forms in children.
Diabetes, goiter and other hormonal disorders can be seen due to iron accumulation.
Heart failure, liver damage, and the corresponding feet, swelling of the abdomen can be seen.
Gallbladder stones are common because increased jaundice will increase.

How is the diagnosis of Mediterranean Anemia?
Diagnosis is made by blood count, peripheral smear, hemoglobin electrophoresis. Genetic tests can also be diagnosed, but it is not widely used routinely because of the difficulty in transport. Mediterranean anemia can be very confused with iron deficiency anemia due to the similarities of blood count and complaints. Iron deficiency anemia should be excluded especially in differential diagnosis.
Mediterranean Anemia Types:
Mediterranean Anemia has multiple subtypes, but the most important subtypes are alpha and beta thalassemia where alpha and beta chains are affected. Electrophoresis is not diagnostic in alpha thalassemia and the diagnosis is made by genetic or clinical findings.
The most common clinical forms of thalassemia;
Thalassemia Carrier: It is the most common patient group and these patients continue their life with mild anemia. They don’t need a blood transfusion. Children born to mother and father who are carriers of Mediterranean anemia may be at higher risk of developing severe anemia.
Thalassemia Intermedya: They do not need a blood transfusion at the beginning of life but they are anemic enough to require blood transfusions in certain periods of their lives.
Thalassemia Major: It is the most severe form of mediterranean anemia that needs blood transfusions from the first year of life.
How is Mediterranean Anemia treated?
There is no need for any treatment in patients with thalassemia if the patient does not have complaints and anemia is not deep. In patients without iron deficiency, it is important in this patient group that iron accumulation does not cause iron problems.
The undesirable effects of thalassemia occur due to chronic deep anemia and the iron accumulated in the body due to the blood given in the treatment of this anemia. Bone changes due to anemia, heart failure, the formation of blood outside the bone marrow (the size of the spleen) is problematic, while the iron given in the blood can accumulate in the organs, causing dysfunction in the glands that produce liver, heart and hormones. Therefore, the removal of iron from the body is of vital importance in patients undergoing routine blood transfusions. For this purpose, drugs that bind and bind iron in the body have been developed.
In order to prevent iron accumulation, it is important to monitor the iron accumulation in the body and to monitor the heart and hormone status. The gall bladder stone or spleen is very enlarged and a very frequent blood transfusion is required. In the selected patient group suitable for treatment, bone marrow transplantation is a solution that can completely cure the disease if there is also a donor.
How to prevent Mediterranean Anemia?
Thalassemia is a genetic disease and passed on to parents. Being a carrier of thalassemia is not an obstacle to marriage. If both parents are thalassemia carriers, children may be sick, carrier or normal. These couples can have a 25% probability of having a normal, 50% have a carrier like themselves and 25% have a child with thalassemia major. If one of the parents is a carrier and the other is healthy, the child will be a carrier of thalassemia of 50%. Blood and hemoglobin electrophoresis is used to screen new couples in our country. In the children of risky couples, genetic samples were taken from the prenatal placenta and amniotic fluid for diagnostic purposes.

Ways to Prevent Allergens

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Specific methods for the prevention of allergens such as house dust mites, pollen and pet are recommended.
What can be done to combat house dust mites?

Ventilate your home often (none of the house dust mites can survive in dry weather, especially when the humidity falls below 50%),
Never use steam machines,
Repair any fluid leakage anywhere in the house,
Change and wash your bedding at least once a week,
House dust mites are found at high rates on household items such as beds, pillows, quilts, carpets, thick fabric curtains and furniture. Do not use wool, goose down or feather beds, pillows and quilts, if possible, cover them with tear-resistant medical special covers,
Lift the carpet if possible,
Prefer thin tulle or roller blinds instead of thick or heavy curtains,
Keep as little room as possible in the room. Keep items such as books, trinket, toys in closed cupboards. Remove the plush and furry toys that the house dust mites can live intensively,
Clean the entire room with a vacuum cleaner with HEPA filter,
Take care not to keep pets at home and especially in the bedroom.

What measures are taken for pet allergy?

* The most effective way to control complaints is to completely remove the pet from the environment,
* Keep pets away from the bedroom,
* Clean the ventilation system filters frequently,
* Use HEPA filter ventilation devices in bedrooms.
What should be done to people who are allergic to pollen?

If you are allergic to pollen, do not go out in the spring and autumn season when the pollen is dense, especially in the morning and at noon, if it is not necessary in dry and windy weather,
For sporting activities, prefer indoor areas instead of open air,
Use sunglasses when you go out,
Change and ventilate your clothes when you come home,
If possible, take a shower every day or wash your hair and face with plenty of water,
Dry your laundry in the house during the pollen season,
Keep your doors and windows closed, especially during pollen
Use pollen filter air conditioner at home and in your car,
When using your car, make sure that the windows are closed,
If you are traveling on public transport, try to stay away from open windows or doors.

For more information about the Department of Allergy and Immunology at Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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What is Allergic Nezle? Spring in Children

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Tree pollen in late spring and early summer, meadow pollen at the end of the summer, weed pollens in the beginning of autumn in the air is mixed. These pollens reach the nose and eye surface and cause allergic rhinitis.
The pollen reaches the tissue called the mucosa, which paves the inner surface of the nose and causes an allergic reaction. It should be kept in mind that allergic conditions often start at an early age, but can also be seen in adulthood.
Seasonal Allergic Flu
People with pollen allergy experience allergic rhinitis during the season when they are allergic to pollen. However, weather conditions, changes in the surrounding environment and the person’s immune system, some years of mild complaints are experienced, some years, more severe complaints and the need for medication increases. In some patients, the eyes with the nose are also affected and this condition is called allergic conjunctivitis.
Allergic rhinitis throughout the year
If a person is susceptible to allergic substances found in closed environments, the symptoms of allergic rhinitis continue throughout the year. Allergic allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis are seen in individuals who have allergy to house dust mite, cat, dog, cockroach, mold fungus due to domestic humidity.
When should we think of allergic flu?
Children with allergic rhinitis can experience sneezing, nasal itching, runny nose and / or nasal congestion shortly after being exposed to pollens, cats, dogs and house dust mites. This movement is called an allergic salute because children often erase their noses upward; This movement may occur due to a horizontal line on the nose. This disease is usually accompanied by eye rash (allergic conjunctivitis) eyes redness, itching, watering is common. Nasal congestion and fullness in the vessels cause swelling and dark color under the eyes. Nasal discharge, headache, cough may accompany. Because of nasal congestion, children wakes up at night and wakes up in the morning tired. Fatigue, perception difficulties, sleep disorders adversely affect daily life.
Does allergic rhinitis increase the risk of other allergic diseases?
When they are allergic to the cause of the skin eczema, urticaria (hives) can be seen. Asthma symptoms may be seen in 10-40% of patients with allergic rhinitis, or asthma symptoms are increased in children with asthma.
Seasonal Allergic Diagnosis
The most important thing in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is the patient’s history. It should be questioned when symptoms are encountered, and how they occur. If the nose is exposed to pollen in the nose, itching, sneezing, clear runny nose should be considered spring fever. Allergen level measurement from the blood (pollen specific IgE) and prick allergy tests applied to the skin can be determined which particles are allergic to the individual.
How to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis?
Allergen avoidance is a priority in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. For this reason, in spring and early summer when pollen numbers are increased, it is recommended that people with spring fever should reduce the time zone for outdoor activities and do their outdoor activities in the morning or evening instead of afternoon hours.
In house of dust mite allergy patients should be removed moisture, moisture should be destroyed, mites holding mites, pillows, mattresses and pillows filled with wool, mattresses and quilts are recommended to be removed from the bedroom. Special non-permeable bed linens help treatment in patients with home dust allergy.
In the treatment of allergic rhinitis, nasal sprays and oral syrups or tablets may also be used to control symptoms. It is recommended that the physician regulate the medications by evaluating the severity of the allergic disease and the patient’s condition. In addition, vaccination therapy (immunotherapy) can be applied to patients who have severe allergic complaints and have limited response to drug treatment. This treatment, called immunotherapy, is applied in 2 different ways: there are injection forms applied to the tablet / drop or arm that melts under the tongue. Allergic reactions may develop during these treatments, so if you apply at least 3-4 years under the control of allergy physicians, the likelihood of successful long-term results is increasing.
For more information about the Department of Allergy and Immunology at Koç University Hospital, click on the link.

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Nutrition Recommendations in Ramadan: What to Eat in Sahur?

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Due to the fact that the month of Ramadan coincides with the summer season, it is possible to fasten with health after a long period of fasting. It has been determined in many scientific studies that the fasting of the Ramadan fast in the body slows down the metabolism in our body.
During the month of Ramadan, meal times and number of meals vary. Normally, 5-6 meals are made during the day, the number of meals in the month of Ramadan decreases to 2 meals. In the month of Ramadan, the number of meals during the day should be increased to 3-4 days. With this in mind, it is important to evaluate meals in terms of healthy nutrition.
One of the most important errors in the month of Ramadan is the lack of standing up in the field. The fasting period can be 20 hours if the fasting is not achieved. This figure may cause serious health problems in the individual. It would be a good health to get to the shore to take down the fasting period.
Sahur food should be composed of nutrients that are slowly digested throughout the day. A rich breakfast of protein and fiber foods will be a proper sahur meal.
If you prefer to make a sahur breakfast type;

Cold cut vegetables such as tomato cucumber,
Very salty cheese varieties,
Less salted olives,
Boiled egg,
Brown bread, such as bran, rye, whole wheat,
One serving of fruit can be banana or peach or pear.
You can opt for a lemon tea or a herbal tea without sugar as a drink.

If you prefer to make a food type sahur;

A little salty buttermilk or tincture next to a low-fat vegetable dish
You can choose brown bread like bran, rye, whole wheat.
You can consume 1 serving of fruit after the Sahur meal.

At the Sahur dinner;

Very fast digested foods should be avoided. For example, foods containing sugar, white flour and other purified sugars.
Roasted foods should be avoided. Such foods can cause nausea and deterioration of the stomach throughout the day.
Foods containing high salt / sodium should not be consumed as it will increase the thirst for fasting.
At least 2-3 cups of water should be consumed during Sahur.

It is appropriate to start the meal with light meals such as dates, cheese, olives, or soup, and to continue with 10-15 minutes of low-fat meat (red or white meat), vegetable meal or salad.
Foods that provide energy but raise blood sugar in a balanced way (white bread, rice-piled foods with high glycemic index instead of bulgur pilaf, whole wheat bread or whole wheat foods such as whole wheat pasta) should be preferred.
Iftar dinner;

Over-grilled, instead of fatty desserts; milk desserts or fruit desserts should be preferred.
Food should be avoided by eating fast and should be swallowed slowly and thoroughly.
Instead of large portions at one time, they should be fed in small portions, one at a time, after each hour.

This article was prepared by Dietician Busra Sağıroğlu.
For more information please contact our Nutrition and Diet Department.

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Non-Surgical Method in Prostate Growth: Prostate Embolization

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What is prostate enlargement?
Prostatic enlargement or prostatic hypertrophy, especially in men over 60 years of age is a disease that leads to difficulty in urination. It is so common in advanced ages that it has become one of the important indicators of old age. Prostate glands and diseases are an area of ​​interest to the Department of Urology.
What are the symptoms of prostate enlargement?
Patients who complain of difficulty in urination due to prostate enlargement, frequent urination, and complete emptying of the bladder after urination are usually recommended. The first treatment is the use of some drugs. As the years go by and complaints grow, there may be a need for surgery for treatment. In prostate enlargement, the standard and best treatment method in various surgery and non-surgical treatment methods is the reduction surgery of the prostate gland by entering through the urine channel called TUR.
What is Prostate Embolization?
Prostatic embolization is a new method of treating prostate enlargement with angioma without surgery and is performed by the Department of Interventional Radiology. The most important feature of prostate embolization is non-surgical treatment.

How is the treatment performed?
Treatment is done in the angiography room. Entering through the groin, a very thin catheter, called catheter, is entered into the prostate artery with plastic tubes and all the arteries within the prostate gland are blocked with very small plugs. This does not damage the prostate gland but reduces its feeding and reduces it. This shrinkage is long lasting. During angiography, the patient is awake, but as with all angiomas, the patient is given intravenous pain relief and relaxing medications for comfort. Therefore, it does not require anesthesia.
What is the duration of hospitalization of patients?
Patients can be sent home either on the same day or one day later. The procedure takes about two hours and after 4 hours, the patient starts walking and can continue his / her daily lives without interruption. Long hospital stay or long-term rest after treatment is not required.
Is prostate embolization risky? What are the side effects?
There are no side effects of surgery and it is very safe. Although it is a permanent treatment method, it may not be effective in every patient as in TUR surgery.
Prostate embolization is not the only method to replace TUR surgery, which is currently the best treatment, but it is a very good alternative to surgery. The growth of the prostate gland is an advanced age disease. In this group of patients, many diseases such as heart disease, sugar, blood pressure can increase the risks of anesthesia and surgery. These problems do not pose a great risk to angio treatment. Therefore, it is a recommended method for all prostate enlargement patients, especially in patients with surgical treatment.
Click here for detailed information about Koç University Hospital Interventional Radiology Department.

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