Find out more about tuberculosis treatment

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How is the diagnosis of tuberculosis?
We have listed what you need to know about the treatment of tuberculosis.
The diagnosis of the disease is made by showing the tuberculosis germ in the sputum or in the organ that the disease holds. Since drug-resistant tuberculosis is an important problem and makes treatment difficult, it is also important to look at the drug susceptibility of tuberculosis microbe. Thus, the drugs that do not affect the microbe can be replaced by the effective ones or the treatment time can be changed accordingly.

What is the treatment of tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis treatment consists of maintenance therapy, which is traditionally administered in the first 2 months of intensified drug therapy and with fewer drugs to be continued for at least 4 months. It is necessary to take up to 10 times a day during the intensive medication period. It is important not to discontinue treatment, to take medication regularly, to avoid any resistance to the drug and to have full recovery. Tuberculosis treatment in Turkey is given free of charge by Tuberculosis Dispensaries. Again, these medications are drunk under supervision of patients. During the course of treatment, the sputum is checked again and the treatment is regulated according to whether or not the microbe is lost.
How is the benefit in treatment?
During the treatment of tuberculosis, the patient can be understood by the reduction in the cough, the weight gain, improvement in the chest X-ray and the inability to detect the microbe in sputum. Although the disease is healed after tuberculosis treatment, the lung film may not completely return to normal and the traces of the disease can be carried over life.

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease!
Since tuberculosis is an infectious disease, it is very important to screen the patient’s family and their immediate surroundings for the presence of active disease, and to initiate early treatment for the patients with the disease. At the same time, if there are young children, adolescents and people with low immunity who are at risk of getting sick in the immediate vicinity of the patient, they should be given protective medication from tuberculosis. There are also some tests showing contact with tuberculosis microbe. A skin test called PPD and blood contact with IGRA tests can be shown. Tuberculosis-protecting medication is only given to people who are in contact with this microbe and have a high risk of illness. This medicine is continued for at least 6 months to be taken once a day.

Protect your babies with the tuberculosis vaccine!
Another method of protection from tuberculosis is the vaccination of infants. Vaccination is a compulsory vaccination in our country conditions and it is performed at the left shoulder head in the second month of infants. If the vaccine is shelled and the shell falls off, it leaves a scar on the spot. The vaccine does not protect us from pulmonary tuberculosis. Although pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the most infectious types of tuberculosis, there are more types of tuberculosis that are more lethal. Vaccination is very valuable because it protects us against a very lethal brain tuberculosis, tuberculosis meningitis (inflammation of the brain membrane) and the widespread tuberculosis throughout the body.
Tuberculosis is a controllable and preventable disease.
Tuberculosis is an important public health problem in Turkey and early diagnosis, treatment and contact screening can be used to control the spread of the disease.
Click on the link to get detailed information about the Department of Chest Diseases at Koç University Hospital.

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What is epilepsy? What you need to know about epilepsy

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What is epilepsy?
Everyone has an electrical activity in his brain. In the region that leads to epileptic seizures in the brain, this electrical activity increases abnormally, and this increase causes a seizure.
Our brain is composed of indentations. All these indentations have a function of overhangs. In the speech center, the patient cannot speak, and bright lights, shapes and objects can be seen in the visual field, and nothing is completely visible. It is called ”seizure bet and eli epilepsy bul if the seizures are recurring, which are sudden, temporary and short-term and often have the same clinical findings.

Is there any treatment for epilepsy?
Drug treatment is started before epilepsy. If the seizures do not stop as a result of testing of at least two drugs in the treatment of the drug, the patient will receive different treatment recommendations, especially surgical treatment. These may include a special diet (ketogenic diet), batteries attached to the neck and brain, and other alternatives.
What is the process of epilepsy treatment?
In the treatment of epilepsy for children 2-3 years and for adults 3-4 years if the drug is provided with inaction, very slowly start to stop drugs. It is not possible to understand that epilepsy is over without undermining or decreasing the medication. Electroencephalography (EEG) showing brain waves helps us in this time.

What are the symptoms of epilepsy?
What we do with all brain functions for symptoms of epilepsy, we look at the loss of that function, or sometimes we see that the function has increased. If there is a seizure caused by the region that manages the arm-leg area and allows us to make voluntary movements, rhythmic pulses and contractions begin on the fingers of the patient’s right or left arm / leg. Sometimes these contractions may spread to the leg or face on the same side. It can find hours, hours, hours.
Some seizures may start with a leading symptom. Most often, a feeling comes from the stomach, butterflies fly in the stomach, they say. The person who feels this leading symptom understands that the seizure will begin and sits in a safe place. It tries to avoid the dangers. In some seizures, there are no leading symptoms. In particular, a group of focal epilepsy and all generalized epilepsy without any indication may start the seizure. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures, seizures, convulsive seizures in the whole body, or seizures, can be a seizure of the seizures. Flashing lights, sudden unexpected touch and call, lead to seizure.

Are children’s epilepsy symptoms the same as adults?
Neonatal seizures may be difficult to recognize with low clinical findings. Some types of seizures are seen only in childhood; infantile spasm The majority of other seizures show similar clinical findings.
What are the types of epilepsy?
Epilepsy is roughly divided into two; generalized and focal.
Generalized epilepsies begin suddenly without leading symptoms. In the case of tonic seizures, the patient suddenly falls down like a tree falling to the ground. During the atonic seizure, the patient suddenly falls down like an empty sack. During the diving seizure, the patient cannot continue his / her speech, look empty, chewing and correcting his head in the arms. In the body, there is a sudden splash of the arm or both arms once. In the large generalized seizure, arms and legs are observed to be contractile and jump movements. In these seizures, the tongue becomes biting and / or urinary incontinence.

Some of the focal seizures are pioneering and some do not. In focal seizures, the patients may stop at the seizure of diving, stop the speech and chew as if there is something in their mouth. Sometimes there are motions like cycling or floating.
If you’re wondering what we should do when we see a person with epileptic seizures, check out our article.
This article Dr. Prepared by Candan Gürses.
You can contact our Neurology department for more information.

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About Breast Cancer

What is breast cancer?
Breast cancer occurs as a result of uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the breast by genetic mutation. These cells can jump to other organs of the body, ie they can metastasize.
Is breast cancer a hereditary disease?
Breast cancer alone is hereditary. Although it is not hereditary in -20 of patients, a few people in the family have been diagnosed with breast cancer before. In other words, p-75 patients in the family have no previous diagnosis of breast cancer. All women are at risk for breast cancer. One out of every 8 women has breast cancer.
Is there a specific target group / group of breast cancer?
Breast cancer can be seen in all women, but some factors are known to increase the risk of breast cancer. The incidence of breast cancer increases with age. The age at which menstruation begins before 12 years of age, entering late menopause (after 55 years of age), having no births or giving birth at late age (after 30 years of age), not breastfeeding, having people diagnosed with breast cancer in the family, alcohol and smoking, menopause post-obesity is an increased risk. Although the effect of nutrition on risk-raising is not clear, consuming too much red meat, consuming processed meat and eating too much fat can increase the risk. Vegetable and fruit weighted nutrition, physical activity is shown to reduce the risk of excessive.
Who should be screened for hereditary breast cancer?
Only those who are considered to be at high risk for hereditary breast cancer should be screened. Breast cancer developed in both breasts, the family has been diagnosed with both breast and ovarian cancer, having a family history of male breast cancer, having 2 or more breast cancer on the same side of the family (father or mother side), 1 or more people with ovarian cancer on the same side, first or second degree relatives of breast cancer under the age of 45 people who have been diagnosed with breast cancer suggests that may be hereditary. The most common genetic disorder in hereditary breast cancers is mutation in the BRCA-1 or BRCA-2 gene. Breast cancer develops in -85 of the people with this mutation and ovarian cancer develops in -45. Therefore, if a mutation is detected in BRCA-1 or BRCA-2 gene, preventive approaches are recommended.
The desire to screen for hereditary breast cancer was increased following the detection of this mutation in Angelina Jolie. However, this test is not recommended for everyone. It is recommended for people with a strong family history as in the case of Angelina Jolie.
What should be done to those at risk for hereditary breast cancer?
Preventive surgery, drug prevention and close follow-up are recommended. The most effective method is to reduce the risk by preventive surgeries. These include bilateral mastectomy, ie, the removal of the breast and ovarian ovaries against ovarian cancer. In mastectomy, the skin and nipple are protected and there is no aesthetic problem because silicone implants are placed during surgery. The removal of the ovaries is recommended after the age of 35-40 or after the desired number of children.
What are the symptoms of breast cancer?
The most common symptom of breast cancer is a painless mass in the breast. In addition, breast or skin shrinkage of the breast skin, reddening, edema or orange peel appearance and the armpit hand mass in the breast cancer should consider. Should these symptoms occur, they should consult a doctor immediately. The earlier the diagnosis is made, the easier the treatment.
Is screening and early detection possible in breast cancer?
Breast cancer screening is one of the recommended cancers. For screening for breast cancer in women at standard risk, annual mammography and annual medical examination should be performed after 40 years of age. From the age of 25, women are advised to examine their breasts and to have a medical examination every 1-3 years between 25-40 years of age.
What are the treatment methods?
Breast cancer is a treatable disease in case of early diagnosis and use of modern therapies. A successful treatment cannot be done by one branch. Multidisciplinary approach to success, ie, General Surgery, Medical Oncology, Radiation Oncology, Pathology, Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, such as many branches need to act jointly. For this purpose, patients should be discussed in the tumor council and treatment plans should be made.
The main treatment for early breast cancer is surgery. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment are applied to prevent recurrence after surgery. In other metastasized tumors, surgery is not performed and chemotherapy and / or hormonal treatment is applied.
Are there any targeted drugs other than chemotherapy in breast cancer?
Breast cancer consists of 4 different subgroups. These include target-directed agents such as trastuzumab, pertuzumab, T-DM1, which directly target the tumor in patients in the HER2 (cerb-B2) positive group. In hormone-sensitive breast cancers,