What is Bone Marrow? Stem Cell Therapy

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The bone marrow is found in the cavities in the center of the long bones in your body. Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection. Red blood cells (RBC) carry oxygen and platelets (PLT) help to clot formation to prevent bleeding.
What is a stem cell?
Stem cells are self-renewing and differentiating cells that are not present in any cell other than living organisms. Stem cells, when needed, differentiate them from the next to the cells, allowing the development, maturation and proliferation of the cells.
Stem cells are called embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells from adult stem cells are used in stem cell transplantation. Stem cells are also of great interest in non-hematological areas. In particular, stem cell therapies that are applied experimentally in cardiological and neurological diseases are the leading.
Stem cells are new immature blood cells. All blood cells begin as a stem cell. Thus, with stem cell transplantation, we can regenerate your blood cell formation skills. Stem cells tend to remain in the bone marrow, where the body can become any type of blood cell, but some are involved in the general circulation in blood vessels.
Stem Cell Transplantation is applied in the treatment of diseases?

Leukemia,
Lymphoma,
Multiple myeloma
Various organ cancers,
Inadequate functioning of bone marrow,
Hereditary anemias,
Immune deficiencies
It is applied in the treatment of hereditary metabolic diseases.

How to obtain Stem Cells?
The stem cell can be obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood or cord blood. Stem cell harvesting from the bone marrow is performed under general or local anesthesia with a special needle by entering the donor’s hip bone once. Stem cell harvesting from peripheral blood is performed by transferring the stem cells located in the bone marrow into the bloodstream and then collecting with the apheresis device by applying a special drug called growth factor to the donor. Although bone marrow is used as a stem cell source in the first transplants in history, 75% of the patients have peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
If the stem blood from the cord blood is born, the baby is collected in the blood bag in 2-4 minutes with the help of the injector after the cord is cut. The collected stem cells are stored at 80 ° C-196 ° C using programmed or mechanical freezing methods by adding DMSO to the cryoprotectant substance under sterile conditions.
For more information about Koç University Hospital Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, click on the link.

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What diseases does hyperbaric oxygen therapy treat?

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Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is an evidence-based type of treatment that has been shown to be fully pressurized within a closed pressure chamber, and is based on a 100% oxygen inhalation at an intermittent pressure from 1 ATA, ie above sea level. In the single or multi-person pressure chambers, the patient is given a mask, hood or endotracheal tube (tube attached to the trachea) according to the patient’s clinical condition and needs.
Hiberbaric Oxygen Therapy can be used in the treatment of many diseases such as sudden hearing loss, sudden vision loss, bone infection, bone death, diabetic foot injury.
Sudden Hearing Loss:
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy accelerates healing by increasing the oxygen level in the inner ear in patients with sudden hearing loss. Patients should start hyperbaric oxygen therapy at an early stage. The best results can be obtained in patients in whom hyperbaric oxygen therapy started within the first 72 hours. Depending on the needs of patients, more than one session treatment can be performed daily.
Sudden Vision Loss:
Sudden loss of vision is an emergency occurring as a result of obstruction of the vessels supplying the retinal layer of the eye. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can maintain oxygenation even if the retinal vessels are blocked. While hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be started at the earliest hour in patients with sudden visual loss, patients should be referred to hyperbaric oxygen treatment centers without losing time. The number of sessions and the frequency of sessions should be planned by the experts in Underwater Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine according to the response to treatment.
Bone Infection:
The partial oxygen pressure in the developing bones is 17-23 mmHg, approximately half of the healthy bones. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy helps to heal the infection by elevating the partial oxygen pressure in bone infections to 1000-1200 mmHg. While the total number of sessions is based on the response of the patient to the treatment, the duration of hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions in bone infections is 90-120 minutes.
Bone Death:
Bone death is a bone disease that occurs as a result of disruption in the blood supply of the bones, decreases the quality of life, and has pain and limitation of movement. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can reduce edema, promote new vessel formation and contribute to bone reconstruction when administered early. During the hyperbaric oxygen treatment, patients can be monitored for pain and limitation of movement and the total number of sessions can be determined.
Diabetic Foot Wound:
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases the level of oxygen in the blood and non-healing wound area in diabetic foot wounds. Thus, by reducing infection and reducing the wound, the healing process is accelerated. For this reason, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used as an adjunctive treatment method in the prevention of amputation and loss of limb in the foot wounds of diabetes patients.
Each patient’s response to treatment may be different, and the patients should be evaluated by a specialist in hyperbaric medicine.
How is hyperbaric oxygen therapy applied?
Patients receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy usually breathe 100% oxygen through the masks they wear in a closed pressure chamber for 90-120 minutes. During the treatment, patients take their time off and mask their air breaks. In order to prevent disruption of the treatment hours, the patients can take their medication into the pressure chamber and the medicines that are deemed appropriate by the doctor.
The treatment can be stopped within a few minutes if any complaint or necessity is developed during the treatment. The total number of sessions that need to be performed varies according to the disease, and can be applied more than once a day in cases where it is necessary.
How do patients feel during treatment?
During hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the air pressure in the pressure chamber increases, while the air travel feels like a descent in the ears. Patients can synchronize the pressure in the ear with some movements, such as swallowing. Patients are informed in detail about how to easily adapt the middle ear pressure to external pressure.
Is it possible to communicate with the patient during treatment?
In Koç University Hospital, the pressure chambers are semi-acrylic, ie, about 1 meter of transparent, pressure-resistant acrylic material, and our patients can be visually monitored during the entire treatment session and audibly with the device-mounted sound system. During the whole treatment period, patients are monitored by automatic pressure system by the pressure chamber operator.
What are the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on diseases?
100% oxygen inhalation under high pressure hemoglobin-mediated …

Stem Cell Therapy in Orthopedic Diseases

Stem Cell Therapy in Orthopedic Diseases
Cartilage damage that may occur in the joints due to different reasons, especially in the knee and hip joint over time, pain, and eventually causes arthrosis, which is defined as arthritis. Moreover, the cartilage can not regenerate itself when the cartilage cell dies from a very special structure groove. Therefore, it is necessary to stop the damage in the joints and prevent their progress.
Stem cell therapy is a method used to reduce the progression of cartilage damage in patients with early-onset cartilage damage, with painful insertion, but early on for surgery or who do not wish to be operated. In addition, stem cell therapy is used in meniscal rupture which serves as a support and prevents the friction of the joint faces within the knee joint.
Stem Cell Application Process How?
Stem cells prepared from bone marrow or adipose tissue are injected into the knee by an injection, where the knee is damaged and the cell is expected to heal. In case of damage to the knee cartilage, it is provided that the stem cells interact with the collagen or hyaluronic acid based carriers in order to act only in the damaged area without spreading into the knee. Because the stem cell is the individual’s own cells, the tissue is intended to heal and regenerate itself.

What is Stem Cell?
Stem cells are the main cells that have the potential to turn into all cells in the body. Embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells are divided into two. Adult stem cells have the ability to regenerate adult tissues and take part in the repair of the body.
How to Obtain Stem Cells
Stem cells are derived from adipose tissue and bone marrow. Cells are taken under mild sedation and local anesthesia to prevent pain. Stem cells in the pelvic bone or core are filtered and separated in sterile conditions. After approximately 20 to 30 minutes of stem cell preparation, the resulting pure stem cells are ready to be administered to the patient.
What are the Factors Affecting the Success of Stem Cell Therapy?
The main factor increasing the success of the treatment is the selection of the right patient and obtaining the stem cells with the appropriate technique. However, life style changes such as weight loss and regular exercise increase the long-term effect of stem cell therapy.
Stem Cell Therapy in Orthopedic Diseases

Obese and overweight patients with a body mass index of more than 30
Calcification has reached the advanced level and the cartilage is completely finished,
Those who have weakened the immune system for different reasons,
People with rheumatic diseases.

Which Orthopedic Disease Stem Cell Therapy Applicable?

Knee, hip, shoulder, hand and ankle joint calcification,
Avascular necrosis of the hip, shoulder, knee, ankle,
Meniscus tears,
In non-union fractures,
Muscles and tendon ruptures